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Breast Cancer. Jordan Liz Donte Bland Mentor: Dr. Thomas Brennan Co-Mentor: Mrs. Joan McMahon Bronx Community College Hartwick College Murry Bergtraum High School. Anatomy Of A Breast.

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breast cancer

Breast Cancer

Jordan Liz

Donte Bland

Mentor: Dr. Thomas Brennan

Co-Mentor: Mrs. Joan McMahon Bronx Community College

Hartwick College

Murry Bergtraum High School

anatomy of a breast
Anatomy Of A Breast
  • Breast profile:A DuctsB LobulesC Dilated section of duct to hold milkD NippleE FatF Pectoralis major muscleG Chest wall/rib cage
  • EnlargementA Normal duct cellsB Basement membraneC Lumen (center of duct)
what is breast cancer
What Is Breast Cancer?
  • Cancer is caused when the body’s natural regulators do not work properly; this causes cells to live longer than normal. Eventually, this results in cell growth exceeding cell death. Those cells continue to divide without normal control and make a mass of extra tissue, or a tumor. If the tumor is benign, then it is not cancerous; however, if it becomes malignant then the person has cancer. When this occurs within the breast, it causes breast cancer.
  • Presence of lump or area that feels significantly different from the surrounding tissue
  • Change in size of breast
  • Change in skin over breast, such as dimpling
  • Redness of the skin over the breast
  • Liquid discharging from nipple (usually blood), but not milk
  • Breast pain or discomfort
  • Swelling of arm(s)
  • Weight loss
risk factors
Risk Factors
  • Age (People over 50 years old are more likely to develop breast cancers)
  • Gender (Women are much more likely to develop breast cancer)
  • Family History (Higher risk of breast cancer if a close relative had it)
  • Genetics (Certain gene defects can increase chance of acquiring breast cancer up to 80%)
  • Menstrual Cycle (Women who get their periods early, before age of 12, or went through menopause late, after age of 55, are at a greater risk)
statistics cont d
Statistics (Cont’d)
  • For women in the US, breast cancer is the second deadliest type of cancer (after lung cancer)
  • There are about 2.5 million women in the US who have survived breast cancer
  • 90% of cancers are due to genetic defects, not heredity factors
  • Bioinformatics is a field of science that combines elements of biology, computer science and information technology into one discipline.
  • It involves analyzing and interpreting biological data to create molecular modeling, discover genes, assign function(s) to genes, and establish relationship between genes and proteins.
breast cancer encoding genes and proteins
Breast Cancer Encoding Genes and Proteins
  • The two genes responsible for breast cancer are BRCA1 and BRCA2 if a mutation occurs in both of them.
  • Two proteins that interact with breast cancer, such as HER2 and HER4.

Chromosome 17Location: 17q21

  • Stands for Breast Cancer 1, early onset
  • Its purpose is to suppress cell growth, aid in DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and control and overall stability to genetic information.
  • Mutations in this gene can lead to breast, ovarian, prostate and other types of cancer.
  • Mutations to the gene can be caused by natural or medical radiations, environmental exposures, or while interacting with other chromosomes.

Chromosome 13

Location: 13q12.3

  • Stands for Breast Cancer 2, early onset
  • Its serves the same function as BRCA1 and a mutation in this gene increases one’s risk at acquiring certain types of cancers.
  • It is important to note that breast cancer occurs when a mutation in both genes occurs, however, if one gene mutates the other has a greater chance of mutating as well.
breast cancer brca gene test
Breast Cancer (BRCA) Gene Test
  • Uses a blood sample to identify whether BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 has been mutated.
  • Administered only to women who at a very high risk of attaining breast cancer.
  • Determines whether or not the patient is a carrier for the mutation and their own estimated risk level for getting breast cancer, or if they are safe.
  • Stands for Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2
  • Helps control cell growth, divide and reparation
  • If the protein is over-expressed, then a patient can acquire a type of breast cancer known as HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer
  • The over-expression causes cancer cells to grow and spread more quickly.
  • Patients with HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer have a more aggressive disease and has a greater rate of recurrence than a HER-2 Negative Breast Cancer
  • Stands for Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-4
  • It serves the same function as HER2
  • HER4 has been linked with positive and negative effects on breast cancer
  • Some research claims that HER4 has been able to suppress the mutation caused by BRCA1 and BRCA2
  • Other studies claim that HER4 makes the breast cancer more severe, but not as aggressive as HER2 makes it.
procedure for blast
Procedure for BLAST
  • Go to the National Center for Biotechnology Information website,
  • Search for the gene that you wish to BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool)
  • Afterwards, go to “Nucleotide,” there you will the nucleotide sequenced
  • Copy the sequence (you will need it shortly)
  • Go the NCBI homepage and click on BLAST on the top of the screen
  • Select Nucleotide BLAST
  • Paste the sequence that you copied earlier and perform the BLAST
  • The process could take anywhere from a few seconds to a couple of minutes, depending on the sequence.
reasons for blast
Reasons for BLAST
  • BLAST, or Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, enables researchers to compare gene sequences of one animal against those of a different organism to determine their similarity.
blast results for brca1 homo sapiens
BLAST Results for BRCA1(Homo Sapiens)
  • Equus Caballus (horse)
  • Pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee)
blast results for brca1 cont d
BLAST Results for BRCA1 Cont’d
  • Bos taurus (cattle)
  • Sus scrofa (pig)
scientific implications
Scientific Implications
  • Studying these genes can lead to the discovery of the cause of their mutation and hopefully a means to reverse or diminish the mutation.
  • Also, further research may result in conclusive data concerning HER4’s effect to breast cancer.
  • In the past, scientists have studied breast cancers in mice and were able to cure it, however, the same techniques had no effect on human breast cancer.
  • There is no cure for breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer treatment include:
    • Chemotherapy (w/ stem cell transplant)
    • Radiation therapy
    • Hormone therapy
    • Medication
      • Tykerb
      • Herceptin
      • Avastin
    • Surgery
      • Total mastectomy
      • Modified radical mastectomy
      • Radical mastectomy
  • Breast cancer is an incurable cancer that affects thousands of Americans each year.
  • It has no cure, but scientist have been able to cure it in other animals.
  • New bioinformatics tools can lead to discovery of cure or more effective treatment.
  • American Cancer Society (2005). "Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2005-2006" (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-04-26. 
  • WHO international Agency for Research on Cancer Press Release No. 180, December 2007.
  • Madigan MP, Ziegler RG, Benichou J, Byrne C, Hoover RN (November 1995). "Proportion of breast cancer cases in the United States explained by well-established risk factors". Journal of the National Cancer Institute87 (22): 1681–5. doi:10.1093/jnci/87.22.1681. PMID 7473816. 
  • Venkitaraman AR (January 2002). "Cancer susceptibility and the functions of BRCA1 and BRCA2". Cell108 (2): 171–82. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00615-3. PMID 11832208. 
  • Cavalieri E, Chakravarti D, Guttenplan J, et al. (August 2006). "Catechol estrogen quinones as initiators of breast and other human cancers: implications for biomarkers of susceptibility and cancer prevention". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta1766 (1): 63–78. doi:10.1016/j.bbcan.2006.03.001. PMID 16675129. 
  • Foray, Nicolas; Marot Didier, Randrianarison Voahangy, Venezia Nicole Dalla, Picard Didier, Perricaudet Michel, Favaudon Vincent, Jeggo Penny (Jun. 2002). "Constitutive association of BRCA1 and c-Abl and its ATM-dependent disruption after irradiation". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 22 (12): 4020-32. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 12024016. 
  • Cable, P LouAnn; Wilson Cindy A, Calzone Frank J, Rauscher Frank J, Scully Ralph, Livingston David M, Li Leping, Blackwell Courtney B, Futreal P Andrew, Afshari Cynthia A (Oct. 2003). "Novel consensus DNA-binding sequence for BRCA1 protein complexes". Mol. Carcinog. (United States) 38 (2): 85-96. doi:10.1002/mc.10148. ISSN 0899-1987. PMID 14502648. 
  • Yan, Jinghua; Zhu Jianhua, Zhong Hongjun, Lu Qiujun, Huang Cuifen, Ye Qinong (Oct. 2003). "BRCA1 interacts with FHL2 and enhances FHL2 transactivation function". FEBS Lett. (Netherlands) 553 (1-2): 183-9. ISSN 0014-5793. PMID 14550570. 
  • Yan, Jing-Hua; Ye Qi-Nong, Zhu Jian-Hua, Zhong Hong-Jun, Zheng Hui-Yong, Huang Cui-Fen (Dec. 2003). "[Isolation and characterization of a BRCA1-interacting protein]". Yi Chuan Xue Bao (China) 30 (12): 1161-6. ISSN 0379-4172. PMID 14986435. 
  • Zou JP, Hirose Y, Siddique H, Rao VN, Reddy ES (1999). "Structure and expression of variant BRCA2a lacking the transactivation domain". Oncology reports6 (2): 437–40. PMID 10023017. 
  • Venkitaraman AR (2001). "Chromosome stability, DNA recombination and the BRCA2 tumour suppressor". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol.13 (3): 338–43. doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(00)00217-9. PMID 11343905. 
  • Orelli BJ, Bishop DK (2001). "BRCA2 and homologous recombination". Breast Cancer Res.3 (5): 294–8. doi:10.1186/bcr310. PMID 11597317. 
  • Daniel DC (2002). "Highlight: BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins in breast cancer". Microsc. Res. Tech.59 (1): 68–83. doi:10.1002/jemt.10178. PMID 12242698. 
  • Tutt A, Ashworth A (2003). "The relationship between the roles of BRCA genes in DNA repair and cancer predisposition". Trends in molecular medicine8 (12): 571–6. doi:10.1016/S1471-4914(02)02434-6. PMID 12470990.
  • Mentor: Thomas Brennan
  • Co-Mentor: Joan McMahon
  • Eric Konadu
  • Bronx Community College
  • National Science Foundation
  • Harlem Children Society
  • Dr. Sat Bhattacharya
  • HCS Staff
  • Rockefeller University
  • All of you for listening