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Structure & Function. http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/actionpot.html. http://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/unit5_2_nerve_tissue.html. http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/301notes2.htm. RESTING POTENTIAL is established by Na + - K + pumps. Na+ pumped outside K + pumped inside.

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structure function

Structure & Function

http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/actionpot.html

slide2

http://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/unit5_2_nerve_tissue.htmlhttp://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/unit5_2_nerve_tissue.html

slide3

http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/301notes2.htm

  • RESTING POTENTIAL

is established byNa+ - K+ pumps

Na+ pumped outsideK+ pumped inside

http://www.chemo.net/newpage21.htm

slide4

ACTION POTENTIAL -- a moving exchange of ions that runs along the length of the axon. 

DEPOLARIZATION:Charge on membrane flipsPotassium ions move outside, and sodium ions stay inside : 

The inside is positive and the outside negative.

HYPERPOLARIZATION:More potassium ions are on the outside

than there are sodium ions on the inside.

REFRACTORY PERIOD resets everything

Na+ and K+ are returned to their original sides:Na+ on the outside and K+ on the inside.

While the neuron is busy returning everything to normal, it doesn't respond to any incoming stimuli.

http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/actionpot.html

http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/301notes2.htm

slide5

Each neuron has a threshold level — the point at which there's no holding back. "All-or-none" means that if a stimulus doesn't exceed the threshold level and cause all the gates to open, no action potential results however, after the threshold is crossed, there's no turning back: Complete depolarization occurs and the stimulus will be transmitted

http://tscp.open.ac.uk/t184/images/T184%20Lesson%201/neuricon_resize.gif

slide6
Synapse or synaptic cleft separates the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of the next neuron. Neurons don't touch. The signal must traverse the synapse to continue on its path through the nervous system.

Synapse video

slide7

DEPOLARIZATON OPENS GATED ION CHANNELS and CALCIUM IONS (Ca ++) are allowed to ENTER the cell.

Calcium ions cause VESICLES TO FUSE with cell membrane and release vesicles containing ACETYLCHOLINE (neurotransmitter) into the SYNAPTIC CLEFT.

ACETYLCHOLINE DIFFUSES across space and binds to specific RECEPTOR PROTEINS on POSTSYNAPTIC MEMBRANE causing depolarization of next cell membrane.

Receptor releases acetylcholine into synapse and ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE enzyme breaks it down and it is RECYCLED. The chemicals go back into the membrane so that during the next impulse, when the synaptic vesicles bind to the membrane, the complete neurotransmitter can again be released.

slide9

http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/neuro/neuromuscular-sml.jpghttp://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/neuro/neuromuscular-sml.jpg

slide13

Blood enters the GLOMERULUS (blood vessel tuft) under pressure causing water, small molecules, and ions (but not macromolecules like proteins) to filter throughthe capillary walls into the BOWMAN'S CAPSULE.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glomerulus