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IAEA Training Material on Radiation Protection in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology. RADIATION PROTECTION IN DIAGNOSTIC AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY. Part 15.7: Optimization of protection in radiography Practical exercise - processor. Overview / Objectives.

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radiation protection in diagnostic and interventional radiology

IAEA Training Material on Radiation Protection in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

RADIATION PROTECTION INDIAGNOSTIC ANDINTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY

Part 15.7: Optimization of protection in radiography

Practical exercise - processor

overview objectives
Overview / Objectives
  • Subject matter : quality control of the processor
  • Step by step procedure to be followed to implement the considered QC test:
  • film storage, cassette and screen, sensitometry
  • Interpretation of results

15.7: Optimization of protection in radiography

part 15 7 optimization of protection in radiography

IAEA Training Material on Radiation Protection in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

Part 15.7: Optimization of protection in radiography

Topic 1: Processor evaluation (film storage, cassette and screen, sensitometry)

what minimum equipment is needed
What Minimum Equipment is Needed?
  • Thermometer
  • Sensitometer
  • Densitometer
  • Manufacturer’s cleaning solutions
  • Ultraviolet (“Black Light”) light

15.7: Optimization of protection in radiography

film processor qc
Film Processor QC
  • Most important QC features :
    • proper film storage
    • cassette and screen care
    • processor chemical care
    • sensitometry
    • artifacts
    • processor cleanliness

15.7: Optimization of protection in radiography

film processor qc6
Film Processor QC

15.7: Optimization of protection in radiography

film processor qc film storage
Film Processor QC - Film Storage
  • Film should be stored in cool, dry conditions

< 26° C, 30-60% relative humidity

  • Film storage area should be adequately shielded from x-ray exposure
  • Too low humidity allows static discharge
  • Storage period must not be too long
  • Stack film boxes vertically to avoid pressure on films

15.7: Optimization of protection in radiography

cassette and screen care
Cassette and Screen Care
  • Clean screens periodically to avoid dust shadows
  • Use manufacturer’s recommended cleaning solutions
  • An ultraviolet (“Black Light”) light can show up dust

15.7: Optimization of protection in radiography

processor chemical care
Processor Chemical Care
  • Chemicals (developer and fixer) degrade with time and use
  • Developer in particular will oxidize (go brown) and become depleted with use resulting in poor quality (reduced contrast and film speed) films
  • Fixer will change pH and lose emulsion hardener

15.7: Optimization of protection in radiography

film processor qc10
Film Processor QC

15.7: Optimization of protection in radiography

processor chemical care11
Processor Chemical Care
  • Chemicals must be replenished (continual automatic replacement)
  • Use manufacturer’s recommendations
  • Check the developer temperature daily - processing is very sensitive to temperature

Note: If the number of films processed per day is low, it will be necessary to use flood replenishment. See Flood replenishment: a new method of processor control. Frank ED, Gray JE, Wilken DA. Radiol Technol. 52:271-275, 1980

15.7: Optimization of protection in radiography

sensitometry
Sensitometry
  • Sensitometer and densitometer required
  • Essential to keep the process under control
  • To be performed daily
  • Main parameters investigated:
    • Base-plus-fog
    • mid-density
    • density difference

(See reference to ACR Quality Control Manual, and Quality Control in Diagnostic Imaging, last slide)

15.7: Optimization of protection in radiography

film processor qc artifacts
Film Processor QC - Artifacts
  • Anything on the film which is not related to the x-ray image
  • Examples :
    • dust marks, static discharge
    • fixer stains (poor washing)
    • film storage problems
    • processor problems (roller marks, scratches)

15.7: Optimization of protection in radiography

film processor qc processor cleanliness
Film Processor QC - Processor Cleanliness
  • All processors will eventually get dirty
  • Clean processor according to manufacturer’s instructions
  • Daily cleaning of entrance trays and cross-over racks is essential

15.7: Optimization of protection in radiography

where to get more information
Where to Get More Information
  • Part XIII.8 “Optimization of protection for Mammography” Practical exercise
  • Flood replenishment: a new method of processor control. Frank ED, Gray JE, Wilken DA. Radiol Technol. 52:271-275, 1980
  • American College of Radiology Mammography Quality Control Manual, Reston VA, 1999.
  • Quality Control in Diagnostic Imaging, Gray JE, Winkler NT, Stears J, Frank ED. Available at no cost. http://www.diquad.com/QC%20Book.html

15.7: Optimization of protection in radiography