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External drivers for change NSW Soils Policy Workshops Sydney 11, 12 June 2009 Dubbo 19 June 2009. Andrew Campbell Triple Helix Consulting www.triplehelix.com.au. Workshop Objectives. Stakeholder understanding of State Soils Policy framework Stakeholder input to SSP Process & content

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external drivers for change nsw soils policy workshops sydney 11 12 june 2009 dubbo 19 june 2009

External drivers for change NSW Soils Policy WorkshopsSydney 11, 12 June 2009Dubbo 19 June 2009

Andrew Campbell

Triple Helix Consulting

www.triplehelix.com.au

workshop objectives
Workshop Objectives

Stakeholder understanding of State Soils Policy framework

Stakeholder input to SSP

Process & content

Stakeholder buy-in for more effective implementation

workshop process
Workshop process

Introduction - Adrian Harte

Background: drivers for change - Andrew Campbell

Small Group Discussions

“Must have” content areas for the policy

Any gaps in the framework?

Project level ideas

Potential synergies with other policies & programs

Real or perceived tensions (no-go areas?)

How to crank up soils work generally in NSW

How to sharpen soils focus within NRM, agriculture and planning

key questions
Key Questions

What are some “must have” content elements for the State Soils Policy?

‘Benchmark Initiatives’ or project-level ideas

Assist in mapping linkages to other policies, strategies & programs

Potential synergies

Real or perceived tensions (no-go areas?)

Awareness, buy-in and support

How to crank up soils work generally in NSW

How to sharpen soils focus within NRM,agriculture and planning

drivers for change
Drivers for Change
  • Food
  • Climate
  • Water
  • Energy
  • Soil
slide6
Food
  • The world needs to almost double food production by 2050, & improve distribution
  • We have done this in the past, mainly through clearing, cultivating and irrigating more land
    • and to a lesser extent better varieties, more fertiliser etc
  • Climate change is narrowing those options, with limits towater, land, energy & nutrients
population carbon emissions
Population & carbon emissions

Source: WBCSD & IUCN 2008; Harvard Medical School 2008

impacts
Impacts
  • As greenhouse gases increase
    • so does temperature
    • and sea levels
    • seas more acidic
    • snow & ice melt
    • more variable climate
    • more extreme weather
  • Climate change is the biggest market failure the world has ever seen (Stern and Garnaut)
likely on ground impacts
Likely on-ground impacts

Significant long-term reductions in water yield (worse cf. CSIRO models)

increases in stream salinity, but smaller saline discharge areas

more frequent and intense damaging summer storms

more, bigger and hotter bushfires (NRM impacts habitat, water, weeds)

potential surprises as ‘sleeper’ weeds and pests take off in more favourable conditions, and as pests and diseases from northern Australia (e.g. cattle tick, fruit fly and cane toads) extend southwards

shorter growing seasons and less reliable access to water for irrigation

fewer cold days and significant increases in minimum temperatures — affecting fruit setting

earlier ripening grapes, and quality problems for reds in particular

increasing heat stress for livestock, including dairy cows

Much more pressure on soils

water
Water
  • Each calorie takes one litre of water to produce, on average
  • Like the Murray Darling Basin, all the world’s major food producing basins are effectively ‘closed’ or already over-allocated
energy nutrients
Energy & nutrients
  • The era of abundant, cheap fossil fuels is over
  • Rising energy costs = rising fertiliser costs

Remaining reserves (billions of barrels) of crude oil (EWG 2007)

land soil
Land & soil
  • The FAO has assessed trends in land condition (measured by net primary productivity) from 1981-2004
  • Land degradation is increasing in severity and extent:

>20 percent of all cultivated areas

>30 percent of forests

>10 percent of grasslands

  • 1.5 billion people depend directly on land that is being degraded
  • Land degradation is cumulative.

http://www.fao.org/newsroom/en/news/2008/1000874/index.html

we need a third agricultural revolution what might it look like
We need a third agricultural revolution— what might it look like?
  • Closed loop farming systems
  • Smart metering, sensing, telemetry, robotics, guidance
  • Understanding & use of soil microbial activity (&GM)
  • Urban food production (roofs etc), recycling waste streams & all urban water and nutrients
  • Detailed product specification (Tesco) & more returns to farmers
  • ‘Carbon plus’ offsets and incentives
  • New marketing options, integrated with transport network
better soil management a win win win
Better soil management — a win, win, win
  • Under climate change, water and energy conservation often seem to be in conflict
    • Water saving options use more energy (e.g. desal, pipelines)
    • Energy saving options are often thirsty (e.g. biofuels)
  • Whereas: Increasing soil organic matter;
    • Improves productivity
    • Increases water infiltration and water holding capacity
    • Improves nutrient retention and cycling (reducing leakage)
    • Reduces energy & fertiliser needs
    • Stores carbon, but may not bring big C revenues
    • Is both a mitigation and adaptation strategy
farming in a carbon economy
Farming in a carbon economy
  • GCA Workshop 28 April 2009 canvassed some options:
    • Future Food - high technology grains; efficiency rules!
    • Biological (Soft) Farming - low inputs; high nutrient cycling
    • Mixed Enterprises - food, energy, carbon, timber & environment
    • Productive (mixed) Landscapes - grains, animals, energy & environment
  • Technical options to reduce emissions
    • Improved fertiliser efficiency
    • Tillage & soil management
    • Carbon capture & nutrient cycling
    • Precision agriculture
    • Measurement, modelling & accounting
implications for soil policy
Implications for Soil Policy
  • Pressures on soils will intensify
  • Focus on soil will increase (for carbon especially)
  • Food, energy & water security are also strong drivers
  • Peri-urban & urban soils become more important
  • The return on investment in soil knowledge and capacity will improve rapidly in coming decades
  • Single-issue approaches are increasingly untenable
  • Soil policy needs to integrate with others
  • ‘Joined up’ policy development tools, processes and frameworks will become increasingly important
workshop objectives24
Workshop Objectives

Stakeholder understanding of State Soils Policy framework

Stakeholder input to SSP

Process & content

Stakeholder buy-in for more effective implementation

workshop process25
Workshop process

Introduction - Adrian Harte

Background: drivers for change - Andrew Campbell

Small Group Discussions

“Must have” content areas for the policy

Any gaps in the framework?

Project level ideas

Potential synergies with other policies & programs

Real or perceived tensions (no-go areas?)

How to crank up soils work generally in NSW

How to sharpen the focus on soils within NRM, agriculture and planning