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College Bound English:. Literary Terms and Devices Selected from A Handbook to Literature, 8 th Edition by William Harmon and C. Hugh Holman. 1. acronym.

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College bound english

College Bound English:

Literary Terms and Devices

Selected from

A Handbook to Literature, 8th Edition

by William Harmon and C. Hugh Holman


1 acronym
1. acronym

  • A word formed by combining the initial letters or syllables of a series of words to for a name, as “radar,” from “radio detecting and ranging.”



2 act as in drama
2. act (as in drama)

  • A major division of DRAMA. In varying degrees the fine-act structure corresponded to the fine main divisions of dramatic action: EXPOSITION, COMPLICATION, CLIMAX, FALLING ACTION, and CATASTROPHE.


2 act as in drama1
2. act (as in drama)

Mel Gibson as Hamlet

Kenneth Branagh

Derek Jacobi


3 adaptation
3. adaptation

  • The rewriting of a work from its original form to fit it for another medium; also the new form of such a rewritten work.



4 aesthetics
4. aesthetics

  • The study or philosophy of the beautiful in nature, art and literature. It has both a philosophical dimension—What is art? What is beauty? What is the relationship of the beautiful to other values?


4 aesthetics this is a painting by chuck close entitled self portrait
4. aesthetics(this is a painting by Chuck Close, entitled “Self-Portrait”)


4 aesthetics1
4. aesthetics

Picasso’s“House-garden”


5 agrarian
5. agrarian

  • Literary people living in an agricultural society, or espousing the merits of such a society, as the Physiocrats did. In literary history and criticism, however, the term is usually applied to a group of Southern…


5 agrarian1
5. agrarian

…American writers who published in Nashville, Tennessee, between 1922 and 1925 The Fugitive, a LITTLE MAGAZINE of poetry and some criticism championing agrarian REGIONALISM but attacking “the old high-castle Brahmins of the Old South.”


5 agrarian2
5. agrarian

HamlinGarland


“Literature in its most comprehensive sense is the autobiography of humanity.”

-Bernard Berenson


6 allegory
6. allegory autobiography of humanity.”

  • A form of extended METAPHOR in which objects, persons, and actions in a narrative are equated with meanings that lie outside the narrative itself. Thus, an allegory is a story in which everything is a symbol. RPM—rebellion, open thinking, manliness; Nurse—hate, control, judgment, conformity


6 allegory cont
6. allegory (cont.) autobiography of humanity.”

  • Samuel Coleridge: the traditional distinction between a “symbol” and allegory is that “an allegory is but a translation of abstract notions into picture-language,” whereas “a Symbol always partakes of the Reality which it makes intelligible.”


6 allegory1

Wizard of Oz autobiography of humanity.”

6. allegory

Lord of the Flies

George Orwell1984Animal Farm

William GoldingLord of the Flies


7 alliteration
7. alliteration autobiography of humanity.”

  • The repetition of initial identical consonant sounds or any vowel sounds in successive or closely associated syllables, especially stressed syllables.


7 alliteration1
7. alliteration autobiography of humanity.”


8 allusion
8. allusion autobiography of humanity.”

  • A figure of speech that makes brief reference to a historical or literary figure, event, or object. The effectiveness of allusion depends on a body of knowledge shared by writer and reader. A good example is T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land and the author’s notes to that poem.


8 allusion1
8. allusion autobiography of humanity.”

  • RPM’s shorts refer to Moby Dick, classic book by Melville (90).

  • Also, to the Bible and Pontius Pilate—a patient says, “I wash my hands of the whole deal” (232).

  • Harding makes reference to the Lone Ranger, Batman, or Zorro—saying RPM is a “masked man” superhero (258).


8 allusion2
8. allusion autobiography of humanity.”

Babe the Blue Ox


9 anachronism
9. anachronism autobiography of humanity.”

  • Assignment of something to a time when it was not in existence.


9 anachronism1
9. anachronism autobiography of humanity.”

Back to the Future


10 analogy
10. analogy autobiography of humanity.”

  • A comparison of two things, alike in certain aspects; particularly a method used in EXPOSITION an DESCRIPTION by which something unfamiliar is explained or described by comparing it to some thing more familiar.

    Will Castle—

    Eliza : Dorothy :: Higgins : Wizard


10 analogy1
10. analogy autobiography of humanity.”

  • find is to lose as construct is to:build demolish misplace materials2. find is to locate as feign is to:pane pretend line mean


10 analogy2
10. analogy autobiography of humanity.”

3. find is to kind as feign is to:pane pretend line mean

4. pane is to pain as weigh is to: scale pounds weight way

5. bring is to brought as sing is to: sang melody song record


10 analogy3
10. analogy autobiography of humanity.”

6. dime is to tenth as quarter is to:twenty-five fourth home coin7. plates is to dishes as arms is to:Legs hands farms weapons

rhlschool.com



11 anapest
11. anapest convince.”

  • A metrical FOOT consisting of three syllables, with two unaccented syllables followed by an accented one.


11 anapest1
11. anapest convince.”

William Wordsworth


12 anecdote
12. anecdote convince.”

  • A short NARRATIVE detailing particulars of an interesting EPISODE or event. The term most frequently refers to an incident in the life of an important person and should lay claim to an element of truth.


12 anecdote1
12. anecdote convince.”

  • Though anecdotes are often used as the basis for short stories, an anecdote lacks complicated PLOT and relates a single EPISODE.


12 anecdote2
12. anecdote convince.”

John Falstaff


13 annotation
13. annotation convince.”

  • The addition of explanatory notes to a text by the author or an editor to explain, translate, cite sources, give bibliographical data, comment, GLOSS, or PARAPHRASE.


13 annotation1
13. annotation convince.”

  • A VARIOUM EDITION represents the ultimate in annotation. An annotated BIBLIOGRAPHY, in addition to the standard bibliographical data includes comments on the works listed.


13 annotation2
13. annotation convince.”

Northrop Frye


14 antagonist
14. antagonist convince.”

  • The character directly opposed to the PROTAGONIST. A rival, opponent, or enemy of the PROTAGONIST.

    • non-character entities can be antagonistic (settings or events)


14 antagonist1
14. antagonist convince.”

Nurse Ratched


15 anthology
15. anthology convince.”

  • Literally “a gathering of flowers,” the term designates a collection of writing, either prose or poetry, usually by various authors.


15 anthology1
15. anthology convince.”


“Literature is the art of writing something that will be read twice; journalism, what will be grasped at once.”

-Cyril Connolly


16 aside as in drama
16. aside (as in drama) read twice; journalism, what will be grasped at once.”

  • A dramatic convention by which an actor directly addresses the audience but is not supposed to be heard by the other actors on the stage.


16 aside as in drama1
16. aside (as in drama) read twice; journalism, what will be grasped at once.”

Roderigo and Iago


17 assonance as in poetry
17. read twice; journalism, what will be grasped at once.”assonance (as in poetry)

  • Same or similar vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sounds. Assonance differs from RHYME in that RHYME is a similarity of vowel and consonant. “Lake” and “fake” demonstrate RHYME; “lake” and “fate” assonance.


17 assonance as in poetry1
17. assonance (as in poetry) read twice; journalism, what will be grasped at once.”

John Donne


18 autobiography
18. autobiography read twice; journalism, what will be grasped at once.”

  • The story of a person’s life as written by that person.


18 autobiography1
18. autobiography read twice; journalism, what will be grasped at once.”

Maya Angelou


18 autobiography2

Charles Bukowski read twice; journalism, what will be grasped at once.”

18. autobiography


19 avant garde
19. avant-garde read twice; journalism, what will be grasped at once.”

  • Applied to new writing that shows striking (and usually self-conscious) innovations in style, form, and subject matter.


19 avant garde1
19. avant-garde read twice; journalism, what will be grasped at once.”

John Ashbery

Frank O’Hara


20 bard
20. bard read twice; journalism, what will be grasped at once.”

  • In modern use, simply a POET. Historically the term refers to poets who recited verses glorifying the deeds of heroes and leaders to the accompaniment of musical instrument such as the harp.


20 bard1
20. bard read twice; journalism, what will be grasped at once.”

Shakespeare



21 bildungsroman
21. Bildungsroman religion.”

  • A NOVEL that deals with the development of a young person, usually from adolescence to maturity; it is frequently autobiographical.


21 bildungsroman1
21. Bildungsroman religion.”

Great Expectations

Pip


22 biography
22. biography religion.”

  • A written account of a person’s life, a life history. LETTERS, MEMOIRS, DIARIES, JOURNALS, and AUTOBIOGRAPHIES ought to be distinguished from biography proper.


22 biography1
22. biography religion.”

  • MEMOIRS, DIARIES, JOURNALS, and AUTOBIOGRAPHIES are closely related to each other in that each is recollection written down by the subject of the work.


22 biography2
22. biography religion.”

Paul Burrell

Princess Diana


23 black humor cuckoo s nest
23. black humor—Cuckoo’s Nest religion.”

  • The use of the morbid and the ABSURD for darkly comic purposes in modern literature. The term refers as much to the tone of anger and bitterness as it does to the grotesque and morbid situations, which often deal with suffering, anxiety, and death.


23 black humor
23. black humor religion.”

Kurt Vonnegut


24 canon
24. canon religion.”

  • In a figurative sense, a standard of judgment; a criterion.

  • In a literal sense, the absolute best—the “hall of fame”—as determined by the qualified readership.


24 canon1
24. canon religion.”

Harold Bloom


25 catharsis
25. catharsis religion.”

  • In the Poetics Aristotle, in defining TRAGEDY. Sees it objective as being “through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation [catharsis]of these emotions,”…


25 catharsis1
25. catharsis religion.”

  • …but he does not explain what “proper purgation” means. Whatever Aristotle means thereby, catharsis remains one of the great unsettled issues.


25 catharsis2
25. catharsis religion.”

Irene Jacobin Othello


“To provoke dreams of terror in the slumber of prosperity has become the moral duty of literature.”

-Ernst Fischer


26 character
26. character has become the moral duty of literature.”

  • It is a brief descriptive SKETCH of a personage who typifies dome definite quality.


26 character1
26. character has become the moral duty of literature.”

Lennie Small

Don Quixote


27 clich
27. clich has become the moral duty of literature.ӎ

  • From the French word for stereotype plate; a block for printing. Hence, any expression so often used that its freshness and clarity have worn off is called a cliché, a stereotyped form.


27 clich1
27. clich has become the moral duty of literature.ӎ

Jerry Seinfeld

George W. Bush


28 climax
28. climax has become the moral duty of literature.”

  • A rhetorical term for a rising order of importance in the ideas expressed, Such an arrangement is called climatic, and the item of greatest importance is called the climax.


28 climax1
28. climax has become the moral duty of literature.”

H.G. Wells


29 collage
29. collage has become the moral duty of literature.”

  • In the pictorial arts the technique by which materials not usually associated with one another, such as newspaper clippings, labels, cloth, wood , bottle tops, or theater tickets, are assembled and pasted together on a single surface.


29 collage1
29. collage has become the moral duty of literature.”

Edgar Allan Poe


Confidant
confidant has become the moral duty of literature.”

  • a close friend or associate to whom secrets are confided or with whom private matters and problems are discussed

    • could be the reader, if narrator offers exclusive information


30 conflict
30. conflict has become the moral duty of literature.”

  • The struggle that grows out of the interplay of two opposing forces. Conflict provides interest suspense, and tension.


30 conflict1
30. conflict has become the moral duty of literature.”

  • 1.) a struggle against nature2.) a struggle against another person, usually the ANTAGONIST3.) a struggle against society4.) a struggle for mastery by two elements within the person


30 conflict2
30. conflict has become the moral duty of literature.”

William Faulkner


“In an incarcerate society, free literature can exist only as denunciation and hope.”

-Eduardo Galeano


31 consonance
31. consonance as denunciation and hope.”

  • The relation between words in which the final consonants in the stressed syllables agree but the vowels that precede them differ, as “add-read,” “mill-ball,” and “torn-burn.”


31 consonance1
31. consonance as denunciation and hope.”

T.S. Eliot

John Milton


32 couplet
32. couplet as denunciation and hope.”

  • Two consecutive lines of VERSE with END RHYMES.


32 couplet1
32. couplet as denunciation and hope.”

T.S. Eliot

Ezra Pound


33 denouement
33. denouement as denunciation and hope.”

  • Literally, “unknotting.” The final unraveling of a plot; the solution of a mystery; an explanation or outcome.

  • Denouement is sometimes used as a synonym for FALLING ACTION.


33 denouement1
33. denouement as denunciation and hope.”

Scooby-Doo Stories


34 dialogue
34. dialogue as denunciation and hope.”

  • Conversation of two or more people. Embodies certain values1.)advances the action and is not mere ornament2.)consistent with the character of the speakers.


34 dialogue1
34. dialogue as denunciation and hope.”

  • 3.)gives impression of naturalness without being verbatim record4.)presents the interplay of ideas and personalities5.)varies according to the various speakers6.)serves to give relief from passages


34 dialogue2
34. dialogue as denunciation and hope.”

Ernest Hemingway

James Thurber


35 diction
35. diction as denunciation and hope.”

  • Choice and use of words in speech or writing.


35 diction1
35. diction as denunciation and hope.”

Shirley Jackson



36 didactic novel
36. didactic novel corrupt.”

  • Any novel plainly designed to teach a lesson, it is properly used as a synonym for the EDUCATION NOVEL.


36 didactic novel1
36. didactic novel corrupt.”

Upton Sinclair

The Jungle


37 dime novel
37. dime novel corrupt.”

  • A cheaply printed, paperbound TALE of adventure or detection, or originally selling for a bout ten cents; an American equivalent of the British PENNY DREADFUL.


37 dime novel1
37. dime novel corrupt.”

Malaeska


38 discourse
38. discourse corrupt.”

  • Mode or category of expression, in grammar, we speak of discourse as direct or indirect. Discourse refers to ways of speaking that are bound by…


38 discourse1
38. discourse corrupt.”

  • …ideological, professional, political, cultural, or sociological communities. Way in which the use of language in a particular domain helps to constitute the objects it refers to.


38 discourse2
38. discourse corrupt.”

Sandra Looney Augustana

John Dudley USD


39 dynamic character
39. dynamic character corrupt.”

  • A character who develops or changes as a result of the actions of the plot.

  • Eliza Doolittle, Pip, Marguerite Johnson, Pi Patel, Esperanza Cordero…


39 dynamic character1
39. dynamic character corrupt.”

Don Quixote

Sandra Cisneros


40 dystopia
40. dystopia corrupt.”

  • Literally, “bad place.” the term is applied to accounts of imaginary worlds, usually in the futre, in which present tendencies are carried ou to their intensely unpleasant culminations. (George Orwell’s 1984, Ursula K. Le Guin’s The Dispossessed)


40 dystopia1
40. dystopia corrupt.”

George Orwell’s 1984



41 elegy
41. elegy literature.”

  • A sustained and formal poem setting forth meditations on death or another solemn theme. The meditation often is occasioned by the death of a particular person, but it may be generalized observation or the expression of a solemn mood.


41 elegy1
41. elegy literature.”

Oleg Liubkivsky

The Elegy of Far Autumn, 1992


42 ellipsis
42. ellipsis literature.”

  • The omission of one or more words that, while essential to a grammatic structure, are easily supplied.

  • (…) only three periods!


43 epic
43. epic literature.”

  • A long narrative poem in elevated style presenting characters of high position in adventures forming and organic whole through their relation to a central heroic figure and through their development of episodes important to the history of a nation or race. The epic itself is the product of a single genius.


43 epic cont
43. epic (cont.) literature.”

(1) The hero is of imposing nature

(2) The setting is vast

(3) The action consists of deeds of valor or superhuman courage

(4) The supernatural

(5) A style of sustained elevation

(6) The poet retains a measure of objectivity


43 epic1
43. epic literature.”

Odysseus

Trojan Horse


44 epiphany
44. epiphany literature.”

  • Literally a manifestation or showing-forth, usually of some divine being. The Christian festival of Epiphany commemorates the manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles in the form of the Magi.


45 euphemism
45. euphemism literature.”

  • A device in which indirectness replaces directness of statement, usually in an effort to avoid offensiveness.


45 euphemism1
45. euphemism literature.”

huskybig-bonedheftyportlyplumpfluffy



46 exposition as in a story s plot
46. exposition (as in a story’s plot) novels.”

  • Its purpose is to explain something. Identification, definition, classification, illustration, comparison, and analysis.



47 expressionism
47. Expressionism novels.”

  • A movement affecting painting and literature, which followed and went beyond IMPRESSIONISM in its efforts to “objectify inner experience.” Expressionism was strongest in theater in the 1920s,…


47 expressionism cont
47. Expressionism (cont.) novels.”

  • …and its entry into other literary forms was probably though the stage. In the novel the presentation of the objective outer world as it expresses itself in the impressions or moods of a character is widely used device.


47 expressionism cont1
47. Expressionism (cont.) novels.”

  • The ANTIREALISTIC NOVEL is also a genre in the expressionistic tradition. More recent novelists, such as Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., Thomas Pynchon, Joseph Heller, and Ken Kesey, ca also be included in the expressionistic tradition.


47 expressionism1
47. Expressionism novels.”

“The Muse”

Jeff Buckley

“Lady and Her Cat”Millie Shapiro


48 falling action
48. falling action novels.”

  • The second half or RESOLUTION of a dramatic plot. It follows the CLIMAX, beginning often with a tragic force, exhibits the failing fortunes of the hero (in a tragedy) and the successful efforts in the COUNTERPLAYERS, and culminates in the CATASTROPHE.


48 falling action1
48. falling action novels.”


Flat character
flat character novels.”

  • a literary character whose personality can be defined by one or two traits and does not change in the course of the story


foil novels.”

  • A foil character is either one who is opposite to the main character or nearly the same as the main character. The purpose of the foil character is to emphasize the traits of the main character by contrast only. A foil is a secondary character who contrasts with a major character.


49 foot as in poetry
49. foot (as in poetry) novels.”

  • The unit of rhythm in verse, whether QUANTITATIVE or ACCENTUAL-SYLLABIC.


49 foot as in poetry1
49. foot (as in poetry) novels.”

William Blake


50 foreshadowing
50. foreshadowing novels.”

  • The presentation of material in a work in such a way that later events are prepared for. Foreshadowing can result form the establishment of a mood or atmosphere, as in the opening of Conrad’s Heart of Darkness or the first act of Hamlet.


50 foreshadowing cont
50. foreshadowing (cont.) novels.”

  • It can result from the appearance of physical objects or facts, as do the clues do in a detective story, or from the revelation of a fundamental and decisive character trait. In all cases, the purpose of foreshadowing is to prepare the reader or viewer for action to come.


50 foreshadowing1
50. foreshadowing novels.”

Ken KeseyOne Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest

Maya Angelou’s

Caged Bird Sings


50 foreshadowing2
50. foreshadowing novels.”


“Literature is a form of permanent insurrection. Its mission is to arouse, to disturb, to alarm, to keep men in a constant state of dissatisfaction with themselves.”

-Mario Vargas Llosa


51 history play as in shakespeare
51. history play (as in Shakespeare) mission is to arouse, to disturb, to alarm, to keep men in a constant state of dissatisfaction with themselves.”

  • Strictly speaking, any drama whose time setting is in some period earlier than that in which it is written. It is most widely used, however, as a synonym for CHRONICLE PLAY.


51 history play as in shakespeare1
51. history play (as in Shakespeare) mission is to arouse, to disturb, to alarm, to keep men in a constant state of dissatisfaction with themselves.”

King John


52 hubris
52. hubris mission is to arouse, to disturb, to alarm, to keep men in a constant state of dissatisfaction with themselves.”

  • overweening pride or insolence that results in the misfortune of the PROTAGONIST of a tragedy. Hubris leads the protagonist to break a moral law, attempt vainly to transcend normal limitations, or ignore a divine warning with calamitous results.


52 hubris1
52. hubris mission is to arouse, to disturb, to alarm, to keep men in a constant state of dissatisfaction with themselves.”

Poseidon


53 hyperbole
53. hyperbole mission is to arouse, to disturb, to alarm, to keep men in a constant state of dissatisfaction with themselves.”

  • Exaggeration. The figure may be used to heighten effect or it may be used for humor.


53 hyperbole1
53. hyperbole mission is to arouse, to disturb, to alarm, to keep men in a constant state of dissatisfaction with themselves.”

Kurt Vonnegut


54 iamb as in poetry
54. iamb (as in poetry) mission is to arouse, to disturb, to alarm, to keep men in a constant state of dissatisfaction with themselves.”

  • A foot consisting of an unaccented syllable and an accented ( ˘ ́ ). The most common rhythm in English verse.


54 iamb as in poetry1
54. iamb (as in poetry) mission is to arouse, to disturb, to alarm, to keep men in a constant state of dissatisfaction with themselves.”

Shakespeare


55 idiom
55. idiom mission is to arouse, to disturb, to alarm, to keep men in a constant state of dissatisfaction with themselves.”

  • A use of words peculiar to a given language; an expression that cannot be translated literally. “To carry out” literally means to carry something out (of a room perhaps), but idiomatically it means to see that something is done, as to “carry out a command.”


55 idiom1
55. idiom mission is to arouse, to disturb, to alarm, to keep men in a constant state of dissatisfaction with themselves.”

James Thurber


“Literature is mostly about having sex and not much about having children. Life is the other way around.”

-David Lodge


56 imagery
56. imagery having children. Life is the other way around.”

  • Imagery in its literal sense means the collection of IMAGES in a literary work. In another sense it is synonymous with TROPE or FIGURE OF SPEECH.


56 imagery1
56. imagery having children. Life is the other way around.”

F. Scott Fitzgerald

Ernest Hemingway


57 imagism
57. Imagism having children. Life is the other way around.”

  • The objectives of Imagist are:

  • 1.) to use the language of common speech but to employ always the exact word—not the nearly exact word;

  • 2.) to avoid the cliché;

  • 3.) to create new rhythms as the expressions of a new MOOD;


57 imagism cont
57. Imagism (cont.) having children. Life is the other way around.”

  • 4.) to allow absolute freedom in the choice of subject;

  • 5.) to present an image (that is, to be concrete, firm, definite in their pictures—harsh in outline);

  • 6.) to strive always for concentration;

  • 7.) to suggest rather than offer complete statements


57 imagism cont1
57. Imagism (cont.) having children. Life is the other way around.”

Jack KerouacOn the Road

William Carlos WilliamsSelected Poetry


58 impressionism
58. Impressionism having children. Life is the other way around.”

  • A highly personal manner of writing in which the author presents materials as they appear to an individual temperament at a precise moment and from a particular vantage point rather than as they are presumed to be in actuality.


58 impressionism1
58. Impressionism having children. Life is the other way around.”

“Ninfee Bianche”Claude Monet

1899


59 in medias res
59. in medias res having children. Life is the other way around.”

  • A term from Horace, literally meaning “in the midst of things.” it is applied to the literary technique of opening a story in the middle of the action and then supplying information about the beginning of the action through flashbacks and other devices for exposition.


59 in medias res1
59. in medias res having children. Life is the other way around.”


60 internal rhyme as in poetry
60. internal rhyme (as in poetry) having children. Life is the other way around.”

  • Rhyme that occurs at some place before the last syllables in a line. In the opening line of Eliot’s “Gerontion”—”Here I am, an old man in a dry month”—there is internal rhyme between “am” and “man” and between “I” and “dry.”


60 internal rhyme as in poetry1
60. internal rhyme (as in poetry) having children. Life is the other way around.”

Li-Young Lee


“A great literature is …chiefly the product of doubting and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

-H.L. Mencken


61 irony
61. irony and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

  • A broad term referring to the recognition of reality different from appearance. Verbal irony is a FIGURE OF SPEECH in which the actually intent is expressed in words that carry the opposite meaning.


61 irony1
61. irony and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”


62 k nstlerroman
62. K and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.” ünstlerroman

  • A form of the APPRENCESHIP NOVEL in which the protagonist is an artist struggling from childhood to maturity toward an understanding of his or her creative mission. The most famous Künstlerroman in English is James Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.


62 k nstlerroman1
62. K and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.” ünstlerroman

Chaim Potok


63 limerick
63. limerick and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

  • A form of light verse that follows a definite pattern: five anapestic lines of which the first,second, and fifth, consisting of three feet, rhyme; and the third and fourth lines, consisting of two feet, rhyme.


63 limerick1

There once was a man from Nantucket, and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.” Who kept all of his cash in a bucket,But his daughter, named Nan,Ran away with a man,And as for the bucket, Nantucket.

63. limerick

But he followed the pair to Pawtucket,The man and the girl with the bucket;And he said to the man,He was welcome to Nan,But as for the bucket, Pawtucket.


64 masque
64. masque and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

  • In medieval Europe there existed, partly as survivals or adaptations of ancient pagan seasonal ceremonies, species of games or SPECTACLES characterized by a procession of masked figures.


64 masque1
64. masque and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

Edgar Allan Poe

Romeo and Juliet


65 maxim
65. maxim and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

  • A concise statement, usually drawn from experience and inculcating some practical advice; an ADAGE. Hoyle’s “When in doubt, win the trick” is a maxim in bridge.


65 maxim1
65. maxim and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

“Ask not what your country can do for you— …ask what you can do for your country.”

John F. Kennedy


“Literature is doomed if liberty of thought perishes.” and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

-George Orwell


66 memoir
66. memoir and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

  • A form of autobiographical writing dealing usually with the recollections of one who has been a part of or has witnessed significant events. Memoirs differ from AUTOBIOGRAPHY proper in that they are usually…


66 memoir1
66. memoir and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

  • …concerned with personalities and actions other than those of the writer, whereas autobiography stresses the inner and private life of its subject.


66 memoir2
66. memoir and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

James Frey,

A Million Little Pieces


67 metaphysical
67. metaphysical and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

  • Although sometimes used in the broad sense of philosophical poetry, the term is commonly applied to the work of the seventeenth-century writers called the “Metaphysical Poets.”


67 metaphysical1
67. metaphysical and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

  • They formed a school in the sense of employing similar methods and of revolting against the conventions of Elizabethan love poetry, in particular the PETRARCHAN CONCEIT.


67 metaphysical2
67. metaphysical and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

John Donne


68 meter as in poetry
68. meter (as in poetry) and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

  • The recurrence in poetry of a rhythmic pattern, or the RHYTHM established by the regular occurrence of similar units of sound. The four basic kinds of rhythmic patters are:


68 meter as in poetry cont
68. meter (as in poetry) (cont.) and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

1.) QUANTITIVE

2.) accentual

3.) syllabic

4.) accentual-syllabic


68 meter as in poetry1
68. meter (as in poetry) and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”


69 motif
69. motif and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

  • A simple element that serves as a basis for expanded narrative; or, less strictly, a conventional situation, device, interest, or incident. In literature, recurrent images, words, objects, phrases, or actions that tend to unify the work are called motives.


69 motif cont
69. motif (cont.) and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

  • Patterns of day and night, blonde and brunette, summer and winter, north and south, white and black; and the game of chess.

  • In books, recurring themes, images, ideas, characters, etc.


69 motif1
69. motif and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

CervantesDon Quixote


70 mood
70. mood and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”

  • In literary work the mood is the emotional-intellectual attitude of the author toward the subject.


70 mood1
70. mood and inquiring minds in revolt against the immoveable certainties of the nation.”


“Literature is both my joy and my comfort: it can add to every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.”

-Pliny the Younger


71 muses
71. muses every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.”

  • Nine goddesses represented as presiding over the various departments of art and science. They are the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne. In literature, their traditional significance I that of inspiring and helping poets.


71 muses1
71. Muses every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.”

(6)Polyhymnia (sacred choric poetry)

(7)Terpischore (choral dance and song)

(8)Thalia (comedy)

(9)Urania (astronomy)

(1)Calliope (epic)

(2)Clio (history)

(3)Erato (lyrics andlove poetry)

(4)Euterpe (music)

(5)Melpomene(tragedy)


71 muses2
71. Muses every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.”

http://shekinah.elysiumgates.com/muse/muses.jpg


72 naturalism
72. Naturalism every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.”

  • A term best reserved for a literary movement in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It draws its name from its basic assumption that everything real exists in NATURE, and…


72 naturalism cont
72. Naturalism (cont.) every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.”

  • …conceived as the world of objects, actions, and forces that yield their secrets to objective scientific inquiry. Naturalism is a response to the revolution in thought that science has produced. From Freud it gains a vielw of the determinism of the iner and subconscious self.


72 naturalism cont1
72. Naturalism (cont.) every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.”

  • Naturalist ic worlks tend to emphasize either a biological or socioeconomic determinism. Pessimistic about human capabilities– life is a vicious trap; frank in portrayal of humans and animals being driven by fundamental urges—fear, hunger, and sex.


72 naturalism1
72. Naturalism every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.”

Stephen Crane


73 nobel prize
73. Nobel prize every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.”

  • The Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Bernhard Nobel willed the income from practically his entire estate for the establishment of annual in the literature and other fields.


73 nobel prize cont
73. Nobel prize (cont.) every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.”

  • Originally, the literature prize was to go to the person who had produced during the year the most eminent piece of work in the field of idealistic literature; in practice, however, the prize rewards recipient’s total career, and some of the literature is not notably idealistic.


73 nobel prize1
73. Nobel prize every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.”

Ernest Hemingway 1954

William Golding 1983

T.S. Eliot 1948


74 noir
74. noir every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.”

  • An adjective taken over from the phrase FILM NOIR to apply to any work, especially one involving crime, that is notably dark, brooding cynical, complex, and pessimistic.


74 noir1
74. noir every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.”

http://www.slushpile.net/wp-content/uploads/2006/06/irish%20noir.jpg


75 novel and nonfiction novel
75. novel (and nonfiction novel) every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.”

  • Novel is used in its broadest sense to designate any extended fictional narrative almost always in prose.

  • Nonfiction Novel is a classification offered by Truman Capote for his in Cold Blood,…


75 novel and nonfiction novel1
75. novel (and nonfiction novel) every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.”

  • …when which a historical event is described in a way that exploits some of the devices of fiction, including an nonlinear time sequence and access to inner states of mind and feeling not commonly present in historical writing.


75 novel and nonfiction novel2
75. novel (and nonfiction novel) every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.”

Charlotte Perkins Gilman

J.D. Salinger


“Great literature is simply language charged with meaning to the utmost possible degree.”

-Ezra Pound


76 novella
76. novella to the utmost possible degree.”

  • A short tale or short story, a book of 50-100 pages; longer than a short story, but not as long or involved as a NOVEL.


76 novella1
76. novella to the utmost possible degree.”


77 ode
77. ode to the utmost possible degree.”

  • A single, unified strain of exalted lyrical verse, directed to a single purpose, and dealing with one theme.


77 ode1
77. ode to the utmost possible degree.”

John Keats


78 oedipus complex
78. Oedipus Complex to the utmost possible degree.”

  • In psychoanalysis a libidinal feeling that develops in a child, especially a male child, between the ages of three and six, for the parent of the opposite sex. This attachment is generally accompanied by hostility to the parent of the child’s own sex.


78 oedipus complex cont
78. Oedipus Complex (cont.) to the utmost possible degree.”

Oedipus & the Sphinx


79 omniscient point of view
79. omniscient point of view to the utmost possible degree.”

  • The POINT OF VIEW in a work of fiction in which the narrator is capable of knowing, seeing, and telling all. It is characterized by freedom in the shifting from the exterior world to the inner selves of a number of…


79 omniscient point of view1
79. omniscient point of view to the utmost possible degree.”

  • …characters. A freedom in movement in both time and place, and freedom of the narrator to comment on the meaning of actions.


79 omniscient point of view2
79. omniscient point of view to the utmost possible degree.”

Joseph Stalin

George Orwell’s1984


79 omniscient point of view3
79. omniscient point of view to the utmost possible degree.”


79 omniscient point of view4
79. omniscient point of view to the utmost possible degree.”


79 omniscient point of view5
79. omniscient point of view to the utmost possible degree.”


“To my mind that literature is best and most enduring which is characterized by a noble simplicity.”

-Mark Twain


80 onomatopoeia
80. onomatopoeia which is characterized by a noble simplicity.”

  • Words that by their sound suggest their meaning: “hiss,” “buzz,” “whirr,” “sizzle.”


80 onomatopoeia1
80. onomatopoeia which is characterized by a noble simplicity.”


81 oxymoron
81. oxymoron which is characterized by a noble simplicity.”

  • A self-contradictory combination of worlds or smaller verbal units. “Oxymoron” itself is an oxymoron, from the Greek meaning “sharp-dull.”


81 oxymoron1
81. oxymoron which is characterized by a noble simplicity.”


82 palindrome
82. palindrome which is characterized by a noble simplicity.”

  • Writing that reads the same for left to right and from right to left, such as the word “civic” or the statement attributed to Napoleon, “Able was I ere I saw Elba.”


82 palindrome1
82. palindrome which is characterized by a noble simplicity.”


82 palindrome2
82. palindrome which is characterized by a noble simplicity.”

Racecar I did roll--or did I?

Hannah Poop


83 parallelism
83. parallelism which is characterized by a noble simplicity.”

  • Such an arrangement that one element of equal importance with another is similarly developed and phrased, the principle of parallelism dictates that coordinate ideas should have coordinate presentation.


83 parallelism1
83. parallelism which is characterized by a noble simplicity.”


84 paraphrase
84. paraphrase which is characterized by a noble simplicity.”

  • A restatement of an idea in such a way as to retrain the meaning while changing the diction and form. A paraphrase is often an amplification…


84 paraphrase1
84. paraphrase which is characterized by a noble simplicity.”

  • …of the original for the purpose of clarity, though the term is also used for any rather general restatement of an expression or passage.


84 paraphrase2
84. paraphrase which is characterized by a noble simplicity.”


85 parody
85. parody which is characterized by a noble simplicity.”

  • A composition imitating another, usually serious, piece. It is designed to ridicule a work or its style or author.


85 parody1
85. parody which is characterized by a noble simplicity.”


“Ernest: What is the difference between literature and journalism?

Gilbert: Oh! journalism is unreadable, and literature is not read.”

-Oscar Wilde


86 persona
86. persona journalism?

  • Literally, a mask. The term is widely used to refer to a “second half” created by an author and through whom the narrative is told….


86 persona1
86. persona journalism?

  • …The persona can be not a character but “an implied author”; that is, a voice not directly the author’s but created by the author and through which the author speaks.


86 persona2
86. persona journalism?

John Berryman


87 personification
87. personification journalism?

  • A figure that endows animals, ideas, abstractions, and animate objects with human form; the representing of imaginary creatures or things as having human personalities, intelligence and emotions.


87 personification1
87. personification journalism?


88 petrarchan sonnet
88. Petrarchan Sonnet journalism?

  • The ITALIAN SONNET –A SONNET divided into an OCTAVE rhyming abbaabba and a SESTET rhyming cdecde.


88 petrarchan sonnet1
88. Petrarchan Sonnet journalism?

Petrarch


89 plot
89. plot journalism?

  • Although an indispensable part of all fiction and drama, plot is a concept about which there has been much disagreement. A plot, Aristotle maintained, should have unity:


89 plot1
89. plot journalism?

  • …it should “imitate one action and that a whole, the structural union of the parts being such that, if any one of them is displaced or removed, the whole will be disjointed and disturbed.”


89 plot2
89. plot journalism?


90 pragmatism
90. pragmatism journalism?

  • A term, first used by C.S. Peirce in 1878, describing a doctrine that determines value through the test of consequences or utility.


90 pragmatism1
90. pragmatism journalism?


“Literature always anticipates life. It does not copy it, but molds it to its purpose.”

-Oscar Wilde


91 prelude
91. prelude but molds it to its purpose.”

  • A short poem, introductory in character, prefixed to a long poem or to a section of a long poem. Rarely, as in the case of Wordsworth’s famous Prelude, a poem so entitled may itself be lengthy, although Wordsworth’s Prelude was written as an introduction to a much longer but incomplete work.


91 prelude1
91. prelude but molds it to its purpose.”


92 prologue
92. prologue but molds it to its purpose.”

  • An introduction most frequently associated with drama and especially common in England in the plays of Restoration and the eighteenth century.


92 prologue1
92. prologue but molds it to its purpose.”


93 prose poem
93. Prose poem but molds it to its purpose.”

  • A POEM printed as a PROSE, with both margins justified.


93 prose poem1
93. Prose poem but molds it to its purpose.”


94 protagonist
94. protagonist but molds it to its purpose.”

  • The chief character in a work. The word was originally applied to the “first” actor in early Greek drama. The actor was added to the CHORUS and was its leader; …


94 protagonist1
94. protagonist but molds it to its purpose.”

  • …hence the continuing meaning of protagonist and the “first” or chief player. In Greek drama AGON is contest, the protagonist and the ANTAGONIST, the second most important character, are contestants.


94 protagonist cont
94. protagonist (cont.) but molds it to its purpose.”

Pip fromGreat Expectations

Batman/Spiderman


95 proverb
95. proverb but molds it to its purpose.”

  • A saying that briefly and memorably expresses some recognized truth about life; originally preserved by oral tradition, though it may be transmitted in written literature as well. Proverbs may owe their appeal to metaphor, antithesis, a play on words, rhyme, or alliteration or parallelism.


95 proverb1
95. proverb but molds it to its purpose.”


“One may recollect generally that certain thoughts or facts are to be found in a certain book; but without a good index such a recollection may hardly be more available than that of the cabin boy,who knew where the ship’s tea kettle was because he saw it fall overboard.”

-Horace Binney


96 pulitzer prize
96. Pulitzer Prize facts are to be found in a certain book; but without a good index such a recollection may hardly be more available than that of the cabin boy,who knew where the ship’s tea kettle was because he saw it fall overboard.”

  • Annual prizes for journalism, literature, and music, awarded annually since 1917 by the School of Journalism and the Board of Trustees of Columbia University. The prizes are supported by a bequest from Joseph Pulitzer.


96 pulitzer prize1
96. Pulitzer Prize facts are to be found in a certain book; but without a good index such a recollection may hardly be more available than that of the cabin boy,who knew where the ship’s tea kettle was because he saw it fall overboard.”

John Steinbeck 1940Grapes of Wrath

Margaret Mitchell1937Gone with the Wind


97 quatrain
97. quatrain facts are to be found in a certain book; but without a good index such a recollection may hardly be more available than that of the cabin boy,who knew where the ship’s tea kettle was because he saw it fall overboard.”

  • A stanza of four lines. Robert Frost’s “In a Disused Graveyard” consists of four quatrains, in iambic tetrameter, each in a different rhyme scheme.


97 quatrain1
97. quatrain facts are to be found in a certain book; but without a good index such a recollection may hardly be more available than that of the cabin boy,who knew where the ship’s tea kettle was because he saw it fall overboard.”


98 realism
98. Realism facts are to be found in a certain book; but without a good index such a recollection may hardly be more available than that of the cabin boy,who knew where the ship’s tea kettle was because he saw it fall overboard.”

  • Realism is, in the broadest literary sense, fidelity to actuality in its representation; a term loosely synonymous with VERISIMILITURD; and in this sense it has been a significant element in almost every school of writing.


98 realism1
98. Realism facts are to be found in a certain book; but without a good index such a recollection may hardly be more available than that of the cabin boy,who knew where the ship’s tea kettle was because he saw it fall overboard.”


99 refrain
99. refrain facts are to be found in a certain book; but without a good index such a recollection may hardly be more available than that of the cabin boy,who knew where the ship’s tea kettle was because he saw it fall overboard.”

  • One or more words repeated at intervals in a poem, usually at the end of a stanza. The most regular is the use of the same line at the close of each stanza (as is common in BALLAD).


99 refrain1
99. refrain facts are to be found in a certain book; but without a good index such a recollection may hardly be more available than that of the cabin boy,who knew where the ship’s tea kettle was because he saw it fall overboard.”


100 renaissance
100. Renaissance facts are to be found in a certain book; but without a good index such a recollection may hardly be more available than that of the cabin boy,who knew where the ship’s tea kettle was because he saw it fall overboard.”

  • This word, meaning “rebirth,” is commonly applied to the period of transition from the medieval to the modern world in Western Europe.


100 renaissance1
100. Renaissance facts are to be found in a certain book; but without a good index such a recollection may hardly be more available than that of the cabin boy,who knew where the ship’s tea kettle was because he saw it fall overboard.”

Commonwealth Interregnum (1649-1660), Early Tudor Age (c. 1500-1557),Elizabethan Age (1558-1603),Jacobean Age (1603-1625),Caroline Age (1625-1642)


100 renaissance2
100. Renaissance facts are to be found in a certain book; but without a good index such a recollection may hardly be more available than that of the cabin boy,who knew where the ship’s tea kettle was because he saw it fall overboard.”



101 requiem
101. requiem read them.”

  • A chant embodying a preayer for the repse of the dead’ a dirge; a solemn mass beginning as in Requiem aeternam dona eis, Donime. In our time the word has been broadened to mean almost anything sad.


101 requiem1
101. requiem read them.”


107 resolution as in plot
107. resolution (as in plot) read them.”

  • The events following the CLIMAX. Synonym for FALLING ACTION.

  • Shows what is resolved in the end of a work.



102 rhyme scheme
102. rhyme scheme read them.”

  • The pattern in which RHYME sounds occur in a stanza. Rhyme schemes, for the purpose of analysis, are usually presented by the assignment of the same letter of the alphabet to each similar sound in a stanza.


102 rhyme scheme1
102. rhyme scheme read them.”


103 rhythm as in poetry
103. rhythm (as in poetry) read them.”

  • The passage of regular or approximately equivalent time intervals between definite events or the recurrence of specific sound or kinds of sound.



104 rising action
104. rising action read them.”

  • The part of a dramatic PLOT that has to do with the COMPLICATION of the action. It begins with the EXCITING FORCE, gains the interest and power as the opposing groups come into CONFILICT (the hero usually being in the ascendancy), and proceeds to the CLIMAX.



105 romance
105. romance read them.”

  • The term romance has had special meanings as a kind of fiction since the early years of the novel.


105 romance1
105. romance read them.”


“What one knows best is…what one has learned not from books but as a result of books, through the reflections to which they have given rise.”

-Chamfort


106 romanticism
106. Romanticism books but as a result of books, through the reflections to which they have given rise.”

  • The freeing of the artist and writer from restraints and rules and suggesting that phase of individualism marked by the encouragement of revolutionary political ideas. The term designates a literary and philosophical theory…


106 romanticism1
106. Romanticism books but as a result of books, through the reflections to which they have given rise.”

  • that tends to see the individual at the center of all life, and it places the individual, therefore, at the center of art, making literature valuable as an expression of unique feelings and particular attitudes.


106 romanticism william worsdworth
106. Romanticism—William Worsdworth books but as a result of books, through the reflections to which they have given rise.”


Round character
round character books but as a result of books, through the reflections to which they have given rise.”

  • A round character is a major character in a work of fiction who encounters conflict and is changed by it. Round characters tend to be more fully developed and described than flat, or minor characters.


Round character chief bromden
round character—Chief Bromden books but as a result of books, through the reflections to which they have given rise.”


108 satire
108. satire books but as a result of books, through the reflections to which they have given rise.”

  • A work or manner that blends a censorious attitude with humor and wit for improving human institutions or humanity. In America, Eugene…

  • the use of irony, sarcasm, ridicule, or the like, in exposing, denouncing, or deriding vice, folly, etc.


108 satire1
108. satire books but as a result of books, through the reflections to which they have given rise.”

  • O’Neill, Edith Wharton, Sinclair Lewis, George Kaufman and Moss Hart, John P. Marquand, and Joseph Heller have commented satirically on human beings and their institutions. Two major types: FORMAL SATIRE and INDIRECT SATIRE.


108 satire2
108. satire books but as a result of books, through the reflections to which they have given rise.”


109 scansion
109. scansion books but as a result of books, through the reflections to which they have given rise.”

  • A system for describing conventional rhythms by dividing lines into FEET, indicating the locations of binomial ACCENTS, and counting the syllables.


109 scansion1
109. scansion books but as a result of books, through the reflections to which they have given rise.”


110 schema
110. schema books but as a result of books, through the reflections to which they have given rise.”

  • The mental connections made in the mind—what controls learning and behavior.

  • Psychologically, that which fascinates and compels.


110 schema cont
110. schema (cont.) books but as a result of books, through the reflections to which they have given rise.”

Laurence Fishburnefrom Othello


“The easiest books are generally the best, for whatever author is obscure and difficult in his own language certainly does not think clearly.”

-Lord Chesterfield


111 science fiction
111. science fiction author is obscure and difficult in his own language certainly does not think clearly.”

  • A form of fantasy in which scientific facts, assumptions, or hypotheses form the basis, by logical extrapolation, of adventures in the future, on other planets in other dimensions in time or space, or under new variants of scientific law.


111 science fiction1
111. science fiction author is obscure and difficult in his own language certainly does not think clearly.”

Alien vs. Predator


111 science fiction2
111. science fiction author is obscure and difficult in his own language certainly does not think clearly.”

Ray Bradbury


112 semantics
112. semantics author is obscure and difficult in his own language certainly does not think clearly.”

  • The study of meaning; sometimes limited to linguistic meaning; and sometimes used to discriminate between surface and substance.


112 semantics1
112. semantics author is obscure and difficult in his own language certainly does not think clearly.”

Michel Foucault


113 semiotics
113. semiotics author is obscure and difficult in his own language certainly does not think clearly.”

  • The study of the rules that enable social phenomena, considered as SIGNS, to have meaning. When semiotics is used in literary criticism, it deals not with the simple relation…


113 semiotics1
113. semiotics author is obscure and difficult in his own language certainly does not think clearly.”

  • …between sign and significance, but with literary conventions, such as those of prosody, genre, or received interpretations of literary devices at particular times.


113 semiotics2
113. semiotics author is obscure and difficult in his own language certainly does not think clearly.”

Jacques Derrida


114 sentimentalism
114. Sentimentalism author is obscure and difficult in his own language certainly does not think clearly.”

  • The term is used in two senses: (1) an overindulgence in emotion, especially the conscious effort to induce emotion in order to enjoy it; (2) an optimistic overemphasis of the goodness of humanity (SENSIBILITY).


114 sentimentalism1
114. Sentimentalism author is obscure and difficult in his own language certainly does not think clearly.”


115 shakespearean sonnet
115. Shakespearean Sonnet author is obscure and difficult in his own language certainly does not think clearly.”

  • The ENGLISH SONNET, rhyming abab cdcd efef gg. It is called the Shakespearean sonnet because Shakespeare was its most distinguished practitioner.


115 shakespearean sonnet1
115. Shakespearean Sonnet author is obscure and difficult in his own language certainly does not think clearly.”



116 short story
116. short story blood.”

  • A short story is a relatively brief fictional NARATIVE in PROSE, it may range in length from the SHORT-SHORT STORY of 500 words up the the “long-short story” of 12,000 to 15,000 words.


116 short story1
116. short story blood.”


117 sonnet
117. sonnet blood.”

  • A poem almost invariable of fourteen lines and following one of several set rhyme schemes. The two basic sonnet types are the ITALIAN or PETRARCHAN and the ENGLISH or SHAKESPEAREAN.


117 sonnet1
117. sonnet blood.”

Petrarch


118 stage directions
118. stage directions blood.”

  • Material that an author, editor, prompter, performer, or other person adds to a text to indicate movement, attitude, manner, style, or quality of a speech, character, or action. Some of the simplest and oldest are “enter,” “exit” or “exeunt,” and “aside.”



119 static character
119. static character blood.”

  • A character who changes little if at all. Things happen to the static characters without modifying their interior selves. Opposite of dynamic.


119 static character1
119. static character blood.”

Henry Higgins


120 stanza
120. stanza blood.”

  • A recurrent grouping of two or more verse lines in terms of length, metrical form, and, often, rhyme scheme. However, the division into stanzas is sometimes mad according to thought as well as form, in which case the stanza is a unit like a prose paragraph.


120 stanza1
120. stanza blood.”



121 stock character
121. stock character blood.”

  • Conventional character types. A high-thinking vengeance-seeking hero, disguised romantic heroine, melancholy man, a court fool, and a witty clownish servant are examples.


121 stock character1
121. stock character blood.”

  • Eliot's “Gerontion” is a gerontion—the world itself is the name of a favorite stock character of Greek (and later) comedy: the geezer, codger, “little old man.”


121 stock character2
121. stock character blood.”

Tom Robinson in To Kill a Mockingbird


122 stream of consciousness
122. Stream of Consciousness blood.”

  • The total range of awareness and emotive-mental response of an individual, form the lowest prespeech level to the highest fully articulated level of rational thought.


122 stream of consciousness1
122. Stream of Consciousness blood.”

James Joyce


123 surrealism
123. Surrealism blood.”

  • Amovement in art emphasizing the expression of the imagination as realized in dreams and presented without conscious control.


123 surrealism1
123. Surrealism blood.”

William Burroughs


124 symbolism
124. symbolism blood.”

  • In its broad sense symbolism is the use of one object to represent or suggest another; or, in literature, the serious and extensive use of SYMBOLS. Men = people in world; Nurse = oppression; Chief = oppressed peoples; McMurphy = change, hope, awareness; Control panel = ???; Ward = society; Monopoly = men’s attempt to control something


124 symbolism1
124. symbolism blood.”


125 symposium
125. symposium blood.”

  • A Greek world meaning “a drinking together” or banquet. The world later came to mean discussion by different persons of a single topic or a collection of speeches or essays on a given subject.


125 symposium1
125. symposium blood.”



126 synopsis
126. synopsis has got through it.”

  • A summary of the main points of a composition so made as to show the relation of parts to the whole; an ABSTIACT. A synopsis is usually more connected than an outline, because it is likely to be given in complete sentences.


126 synopsis1
126. synopsis has got through it.”


127 syntax
127. syntax has got through it.”

  • Syntax is the rule-governed arrangement of worlds in sentences. Syntax seems to be that level of language that most distinguishes poetry from prose.


127 syntax1
127. syntax has got through it.”


128 tall tale
128. tall tale has got through it.”

  • A kind of humorous tale, common on the American frontier, that uses realistic detail a literal manner, and common speech to recount extravagantly impossible happenings, usually resulting form the superhuman abilities of a character.


128 tall tale1
128. tall tale has got through it.”

Pecos Bill and Slue-Foot Sue


128 tall tale2
128. tall tale has got through it.”

John Henry


129 theatre of the absurd
129. Theatre of the Absurd has got through it.”

  • A term invented by Martin Esslin for the kind of drama that presents a view of the absurdity of the human condition by abandoning of usual or rational devices and by the used of nonrealistic form.


129 theatre of the absurd1
129. Theatre of the Absurd has got through it.”

  • It expounds and existential ideology and views its task as essentially metaphysical. The most widely acclaimed play of the school is Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot (1953).


129 theatre of the absurd2
129. Theatre of the Absurd has got through it.”

Samuel Beckett


130 theme
130. theme has got through it.”

  • A central idea. Both theme and thesis imply a subject and a predicate of some kind—not just vice in general, say, but some such proposition as “Vice seems more interesting than virtue but turns out to be destructive.”


130 theme1
130. theme has got through it.”


“All good books are alike in that they are truer than if they had really happened.”

-Ernest Hemingway


131 thesis
131. thesis they had really happened.”

  • An attitude or position on a problem taken by a writer or speaker with the purpose of proving or supporting it. The term is also used for the paper written to support the thesis.


131 thesis1
131. thesis they had really happened.”


132 tone
132. tone they had really happened.”

  • Tome has been used for the attitudes toward the subject and toward the audience implied in literary work. Tone may be formal, informal, intimate, solemn, sombre, playful, serious, ironic, condescending, or many another possible attitudes.


132 tone1
132. tone they had really happened.”


133 tour de force
133. tour de force they had really happened.”

  • A feat of strength and virtuosity. Tour de force is used in criticism to refer to works that make outstanding demonstrations of skill.


133 tour de force1
133. tour de force they had really happened.”


134 tragedy
134. tragedy they had really happened.”

  • A term with many meanings and applications. In drama it refers to a particular kind of play, the definition of which was established by Aristotle’s Poetics, in narrative, particularly in Middle Ages, it refers to a body of work recounting the fall of a persons of high degree.


134 tragedy1
134. tragedy they had really happened.”


135 tragic flaw
135. tragic flaw they had really happened.”

  • The theory that there is a flaw in the tragic hero that causes his or her downfall. The theory has been revised or refuted by criticism that considers the supposed flaw as an integral and even defining part to the protagonist's character.


135 tragic flaw1
135. tragic flaw they had really happened.”



136 transcendentalism
136. Transcendentalism author.”

  • A reliance of the intuition and the conscience, a form of idealism; a philosophical ROMANTICISM reaching America a generation or two…


136 transcendentalism1
136. Transcendentalism author.”

  • …after it developed in Europe. Transcendentalists believed in living close to nature and taught the dignity of manual labor and in democracy and individualism.


136 transcendentalism2
136. Transcendentalism author.”

Thomas ColeThe Voyage of Life: Youth1842


136 transcendentalism3
136. Transcendentalism author.”

Henry David Thoreau

Ralph Waldo Emerson


137 trope
137. trope author.”

  • In rhetoric a trope is a FIGURE OF SPEECH involving a “turn” or change of sense—the use of a word in a sense other than the literal; in this sense figures of comparison as well as ironical expressions are tropes.


137 trope1
137. trope author.”

Example of irony


137 trope2
137. trope author.”

Example of irony


138 utopia
138. utopia author.”

  • A fiction describing an imaginary ideal world. DYSTOPIA, meaning “bad place,” is the term applied to unpleasant imaginary places, such as those in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and George Orwell’s 1984.


138 utopia1
138. utopia author.”

Charlotte Perkins Gilman


139 verse as in poetry
139. verse (as in poetry) author.”

  • Used in two senses: (1) as a unit of poetry, in which case it has the same significance as STANZA or LINE; and (2) as a name given generally to metrical composition.


139 verse as in poetry1
139. verse (as in poetry) author.”

Robert Lowell

Sylvia Plath


140 vignette
140. vignette author.”

  • A SKETCH or brief narrative characterized by precision and delicacy. The term is also applied to SHORT-SHORT STORIES less than 500 words in length.


140 vignette1
140. vignette author.”

Sandra Cisneros


“Books are a narcotic.” author.”

-Franz Kafka


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