spanish portuguese in afro eurasia vs the americas
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Spanish & Portuguese in Afro-Eurasia vs. the Americas. A comparison. Spanish and Portuguese had same motives. Changed status quo Longer expeditions Break monopolies on trade Bring in specie to strengthen national monarchies Convert non-Christians Drive out or do battle with Muslim forces.

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spanish and portuguese had same motives
Spanish and Portuguese had same motives
  • Changed status quo
    • Longer expeditions
  • Break monopolies on trade
  • Bring in specie to strengthen national monarchies
  • Convert non-Christians
  • Drive out or do battle with Muslim forces
wealth of conquered territories
Wealth of conquered territories
  • By 15th century trade was revived
    • Collapsed during the Black Death of the 1300’s
  • IO Network: rich trading states on coastal India (Malabar), Persian Gulf, Eastern Africa, Malacca, Southern Coast of China
    • Large amounts of spice – esp. Pepper
    • Many port cities Muslim

IO Free Trade Zone prior to Portuguese domination

Revival of the IO trade network left link between E. African Coast, S. Asia, SE Asia to China

Indian subcontinent center of trade routes

africans were savvy
Africans were savvy
  • Attempted to control relationships with Portuguese
  • Sent ambassadors
  • Threatened to end trade if necessary
  • Established royal monopolies
east africans savvy and muslim
East Africans – savvy and Muslim
  • Trading states Muslim, but city-states
  • Malinda only state to side with Portuguese against its neighbors
  • Bombardment campaign necessary to establish Portuguese control
  • Alliance with Christian Ethiopia against Ottoman influence
middle easterners savvy and strong
Middle Easterners – savvy and strong
  • Ottoman Empire able to help
    • Encouraged overland trade routes by protecting caravans and providing safe rest stops.
    • Revenue helped finance Ottoman military expansion
  • Portuguese still took Hormuz
  • Couldn't’t take Aden
  • Aden & Hormuz were major trading hubs between Asia and Arabs. Portuguese wanted to take over both to prevent Arabs trade.
indians savvy but under armed
Indians – Savvy but under-armed
  • Calicut, previous site of humiliation, conquered through use of cannon
  • Gujarat conquered
  • Areas that resisted were cut off from trade
  • No attempt at penetration beyond entrepot cities
malaccans savvy but divided
Malaccans – savvy but divided
  • Some supported integration of new traders
  • Already multicultural
  • Unable to resist Portuguese cannon
  • Malacca captured and controlled by Portuguese
chinese savvy and strong
Chinese – savvy and strong
  • Trade welcomed but limited to Macao
  • Portuguese used to transport trade between China and Japan – the yearly “black ships”
  • No penetration into interior
chinese savvy and strong1
Chinese – savvy and strong
  • Internal growth in Ming dynasty fueled Eurasian commerce
    • Elaborate trade networks developed
    • Domestic production of silk and porcelain expanded
    • Foreign demand for silk and porcelain increased
    • Foreigners paid for Chine products with silver
      • Silver became the basis of Ming monetary system
        • Japan and eventually the Americas were major sources of silver
important factors
Important Factors
  • Resistance to disease of Afro-Eurasians meant no penetration into interior
  • Portuguese cannon on ships allowed for establishment of a Maritime Trade Empire, but NOT complete control
  • Monopoly of Italians broken; Portugal became very wealthy
the americas very different
The Americas – Very different
  • Motives of explorers exploitation of natural resources, slave trade
  • Amerindians naïve, ritualistic in warfare
  • Little resistance to long-established Afro-Eurasian diseases – up to 50% of population died
  • Little metallurgy; Europeans had technological advantage e.g. swords and armor
  • No firearms
  • No horses for cavalry
The Aztec empire and the Spanish conquest
  • 1. Mexica Society
  • In Mesoamerica, the Mexica had created a large, complex empire that embraced perhaps 25 million people.
  • The Aztec state was based on extensive kinship networks.
  • Priest played a powerful role as well.
    • The Mexica believed in a cyclical universe and a coming apocalypse.
    • Captives were sacrificed to the gods.
  • From 1440 onward, the Aztec empire was under stress.
  • Conquered people on the periphery were rebelling.
  • Cortés and Conquest
  • Hernan Cortés arrived in early sixteenth century.
    • Aztec ruler Moctezuma and his ministers feared Cortés and his men were the god Quetzalcoátl and his entourage and sent emissaries to distract them, but made little effort to fortify the empire.
    • Doña Marina, a daughter of a local Indian noble farmer, was the key to translating between Aztecs and Spanish.
  • Cortés made alliances with aggrieved Aztec enemies.
  • Cortés entered the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlán, in 1519 and captured Moctezuma, who then ruled as a Spanish puppet.
  • The Aztecs rose in rebellion two years later but were defeated by the Spanish and their allies.
    • Spanish had more advanced technology.
    • Aztecs fought to capture, not to kill.
    • Diseases brought over by the Spanish wiped out much of the Aztec population and made resistance all the more difficult.
  • Cortés became governor of the colony "New Spain."Unhappy minority populations within brutal Aztec joined with Spanish conquistadores
  • Attempts at parley resulted in Mocteczuma being held hostage in Tenochtitlan
  • Seeing their emperor fall broke the religious faith that sustained the power structure
  • Disease wiped out many, reduced chance to resist conquistadores
  • Clever, long-known European military strategies used effectively (e.g. Cavalry charge)
  • After brief resistance, empire fell
  • Already weakened by smallpox when Pizarro arrived
  • Had been through succession battle and civil war just prior
  • Ceremonially welcomed Pizarro
  • Pizarro’s men betrayed Ayathualpa, cut down litter which ended religious authority
  • From capital of Cuzco, Incas governed an empire of 4 to 6 million
  • As Spanish arrived, internal strife over inheritance of empire
  • Smallpox epidemic struck
  • Spanish led by Francisco Pizarro, take advantage of internal conflict to conquer the Incas in 1532.
  • After conquest, Spanish establish their capital in Lima.
  • Spanish fight over spoils of the empire.
general factors americas
General factors -- Americas
  • Religious nature of state meant ceremonial warfare
  • When leaders fell, religious basis of power put into question
  • Spread of epidemic diseases seemed inspired by gods
  • Lack of military techniques and technology
  • Dishonesty of conquistadors
major differences port v spanish

Encountered experienced populations with almost as good tech

Couldn’t use spread of disease to penetrate inland

Had a MARITIME trade empire

Focused on dominating the IO trade, trade with West Africa


Encountered Naïve populations with little technology

Used spread of Smallpox to weaken population

Established LAND EMPIRES

Focused on extracting resources (esp. Specie) from land

Major differences: Port v. Spanish