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MODULE 2

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MODULE 2

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  1. MODULE 2 BIOCHEMISTRY & PHARMACOGNOSY

  2. 1. Which carbon in the sugars is responsible for the difference between the two nucleic acids? A. Carbon 1 C. Carbon 3 B. Carbon 2 D. Carbon 4 - RIBOSE in RNA has a hydroxyl group in the second carbon, while 2-Deoxy-D-Ribose in DNA, has none.

  3. 2. Which of the following is responsible for the acidic character of nucleic acids? • Phosphate group • Nucleotides • Nitrogenous bases • Nucleic acids are not acids -Nucleotides = PO4 + Sugar + Nitrogenous base -Nitrogenous base = A, G, T, C, and U

  4. 3. This refers to noncoding regions that alternate with coding regions in the polypeptide sequence. A. Exon C. Promoter B. Intron D. Repressor • INTRON derived from the term intragenic region removed by RNA splicing. • EXON nucleic acid in the mature form of an RNA molecule • PROMOTER region that facilitates transcription • REPRESSOR prevents gene expression

  5. 4. What type of extraction process is employed in obtaining mustard oil? A. Water Distillation B. Water & Steam Distillation C. Direct Steam Distillation D. Enzymatic Hydrolysis - Glycosidic volatile oils such as mustard oil are obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of the glycoside

  6. 5. It is regarded as the “ginseng of Europe” because it is extensively cultivated and utilized in European folk medicine. A. Feverfew C. Eucaplytus B. Camphor D. Chamomile - Ginseng of Europe = CHAMOMILE

  7. 6. This refers to the solid resin obtained from Pinus palustris which is used as stiffening agent in cerates, plasters and ointments • Jalap C. Colophony E. B and C • Rosin D. A and B - Pinuspalustriscommonly known as “longleaf pine”

  8. 7. This is a rare human disorder which progresses to photosensitivity caused by inherited exonuclease deficiency. • Bloom’s syndrome • Fanconi’sanemia • Hodgkin’s lymphoma • Xerodermapigmentosa -XP leads to malignant melanoma, basal and squamous cell carcinomas

  9. 8. This chemotherapeutic agent binds to bacterial RNA polymerase. A. PZA C. Bleomycin B. Actinomycin D D. Rifampicin • Rifampicin specifically binds to a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase preventing transcription and translation. • May be represented as R, RIF, RMP, RA, RF

  10. 9. Random coils and triple helices are examples to what protein structure? A. Primary C. Tertiary B. Secondary D. Quaternary • PRIMARY = “sequential arrangement” • TERTIARY = “3D structure as defined by atomic position” • QUATERNARY = “arrangement of multi-subunit complex”

  11. 10. Serotonin is synthesized from this amino acid. A. Tyrosine C. Threonine B. Tryptophan D. Serine - SEROTONIN is 5-HT, 5-hydoxytryptamine

  12. 11. These are small, extra chromosomal circular DNA molecules found in prokaryotes. A. Nucleoli C. Plasmids B. Genes D. Histones • Histones = alkaline proteins • Genes = unit of heredity • Nucleoli = site of rRNA transcription and assembly

  13. 12. These are organelles that contain the enzyme for pyruvate oxidation, citric acid cycle, beta oxidation of fatty acids, oxidative phosphorylation and ETC. A. Golgi Apparatus C. Nucleus B. Lysosomes D. Mitochondria • Most of the “energy-producing” process happens in the mitochondria. • PPP is in the cytosol or in plastids

  14. 13. This DNA is has a special left handed helical structure. A. A-DNA C. Z-DNA B. B-DNA D. F-DNA

  15. 14. This type of mutation occurs when the codon containing the changed base may become a termination codon? • Nonsense mutation • Missense mutation • Silent mutation • Transitional mutation

  16. 15. This enzyme is responsible for removing the RNA primer on the DNA. A. Exonuclease C. RNA polymerase B. DNA ligase D. DNA polymerase • Exonuclease = cleaves nucleotide • RNApol = enzyme ersponsible for creating RNA from DNA • DNA ligase = joins DNA together

  17. 16. Myoglobin and haemoglobin possess a cyclic tetrapyrole, heme, as a prosthetic group. Which ion is found centrally located in the heme? A. Mg C. Ca B. Al D. Fe - HEME = Fe, IRON

  18. 17. Wermicke-Korsakoff syndrome is presented as acute confusion, ataxia, and ophtalmoplegia can be treated with which of the following? A. Riboflavin C. Thiamine B. Ascorbic acid D. Panthothenic acid • WERMICKE-KORSAKOFF, thimaine deficiency or beri-beri

  19. 18. What color is the visible result for Ninhydrin test? A. Red C. Violet B. Yellow D. Blue

  20. 19. Animal employed in the assay of digitalis glycosides A. Dog C. Pigeon B. Cat D. Rabbit - Cardiontonic activity is important to be assayed to assess digitalis potency. - Cardiac arrest in pigeons is the end point

  21. 20. Pepsinogen is an example of a what? A. Apoenzyme C. Cofactor B. HoloenzymeD. Zymogen • Apoenzyme = enzymes that requires a cofactor • Holoenzyme = Apoenzyme w/ cofactor • Cofactor = additional components that renders full enzyme activity

  22. 21. The glycosidic bond form in glycosides is an example of? A. Ester bond C. Ketone bond B. Ether bond D. Covalent bond

  23. 22. The digestion of carbohydrates begins where? A. Stomach C. Esophagus B. Small intestine D. Mouth - Amylase is present in human saliva

  24. 23. -amylase cleaves amylose to what? • Maltose and maltotriose • Glucose and glucotriose • Fructose and maltose • Xylose and fructose - Amylose is a linear polymer composed of D-glucose

  25. 24. Peanut oil is known as A. Rapeseed oil C. Mani oil B. Arachis oil D. Teel oil

  26. 25. The site for citric acid cycle. A. Mitochondria C. Nucleus B. Ribosomes D. Cytosol

  27. 26. The pentose phosphate pathway occurs in the __________ of liver, kidney and muscles. A. Motichondria C. Nucleus B. Ribosomes D. Cytosol

  28. 27. What enzyme catalyzes the conversion of Acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate to citrate? • Citrate synthase • Isocitrate dehydrogenase • Fumarase • Malate dehydrogenase

  29. 28. An ipecac preparation, which is a component of poison antidote kits • Ipecac fluid extract • Dover’s powder • Ipecac syrup • Emetine HCl • Powdered Ipecac

  30. 29. The citric acid cycle is an example of what metabolism? A. Anabolic C. Amphibolic B. Catabolic D. NOTA

  31. 30. These are esters of fatty acids and glycerol A. Fixed oils and fats C. Sterols B. Waxes D. Lipids

  32. 31. What is used to culture measles virus? A. Agar C. Monkey B. Armadillo D. Avian embryo tissue - Measles virus Is cultured in either avian embryo tissue or human diploid tissue

  33. 32. This refers to starch that has been mechanically or chemically processed to rupture all or pat of the granules in the presence of water • Sodium starch glyconate • Hetastarch • Pregelatinized starch • AOTA - Pregelatinized starch is slightly soluble to soluble in cold water. It is used as a tablet excipient.

  34. 33. Xylose is used as a/an A. Diuretic C. Binder B. Pharmaceutic excipient D. Diagnostic aid - Xylose absorbed in the small intestine but not well metabolized extensively

  35. 34. This is the continuous production of ketone bodies. A. Ketonuria C. Ketosis B. KetonemiaD. Ketoacidosis - Acetoacetate and -hydroxybutyrate are ketone bodies used to produce energy

  36. 35. Which of the following is a wax? A. Cholesterol C. Ergosterol B. Spermaceti D. Lecithin • Taken from Physetermacrocephalus(Sperm whale). • LECITHIN = generic for yellow fatty substances from animal, plants and egg yolk

  37. 36. Which of the following pairs is correct? • Ferrous gluconate-hematinic • Xylose-laxative • Lactulose-Diagnostic aid • A and C • AOTA

  38. 37. This is the complete reduction product of oxygen A. Hydrogen peroxide C. Superoxide anions B. Hydroxyl radicals D. Water

  39. 38. What is the principal constituent of Nutgall? A. Gallic acid C. Resin B. Ellagicacid D. Tannic acid - Nutgall contains all, but the question asks for the PRINCIPAL constituent, which is TANNIC ACID.

  40. 39. Which of the following is photosensitizing furocoumarin? A. PsoralenC. Tannic acids B. CantharidesD. Uvaursi

  41. 40. Which of the following statements is true regarding decaffeinized coffee? • It normally contains 0.08% of caffeine B. It normally contains 0.8% of caffeine C. It has a higher price than ordinary caffeine D. Both A and C E. Both B and C

  42. 41. This is a differentiating test for aldose and ketose sugars. A. Barfoed’stest C. Seliwanoff’s test B. Benedict’s test D. Iodine test

  43. 42. -naphthol reaction is also known as what? A. MolischtestC. Phenylhydrazine test B. Ninhydrintest D. Fehling’s test - -naphtholmain chemical component of molishch test

  44. 43. What type of glycosidic bond joins the diemrs of glucose to form maltose? A. -1,4 C. -1,4 B. -1,2 D. -1,2

  45. 44. Inherited absence of the enzyme -ketoacid decarboxylase result to what disease? • Maple syrup urine disease • Ketonuria • Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome • -thalassemia

  46. 45. When levels of sodium urate crystals exceeds the limit for solubility, excess accumulates in soft tissues and causes a reaction known as A. LeschNyhan syndrome B. Osteomalacia C. Gouty arthritis D. Von Gierke’s disease

  47. 46. The state of high serum levels acetoacetic and -hydroxybutyric acid is called A. Ketonuria C. Ketosis B. Ketonemia D. Ketoacidosis

  48. 47. This refers to aldose-ketose interconversion. A. Tautomerization C. Isomerism B. Mutarotation D. Conjugation

  49. 48. The Salkowski test for cholesterol utilizes what strong acid? A. Sulfuric acid C. Hydrochloric acid B. Nitric acid D. Perchloric acid

  50. 49. These cells in the body lack mitochondria thus rendering them incapable of TCA. A. Platelets C. Erythrocytes B. Neurons D. Leukocytes