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Essentials of AV Technology AV System Infrastructure. Part One Control Systems. Introduction to Control Systems. Introduction to Control Systems Types of Control Signals Net-Centric Control. Control Systems. Control System: Operation of complex AV systems without technical knowledge .

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introduction to control systems
Introduction to Control Systems
  • Introduction to Control Systems
  • Types of Control Signals
  • Net-Centric Control
control systems
Control Systems

Control System: Operation of complex AV systems without technical knowledge

control system functions
Control System Functions
  • Event driven system is reactive
  • Functions are any individual action
  • Common functions
    • Raising/lowering projection screen
    • Powering devices
    • Setting volume levels
control system componets
Control System Componets
  • The "Brains" of the System
  • Interfaces with devices to execute functions
  • Runs custom programs
control system interfaces
Control System Interfaces

A way for the user to interact with a control system

  • Touchpanels
  • Multi-button panels
  • Touch-sensitive screens
control signals
Control Signals
  • Signals communicate commands
    • Unidirectional
    • Bidirectional
contact closure
Contact Closure

Typically an "on" or "off" switch.

variable voltage control
Variable Voltage Control

Voltage ramp generator

Camera pan/tilt head

infrared optical and wired
Infrared: Optical and Wired

Optical Infrared: Line of sight

Wired: serial communication

radio frequency
Radio Frequency

User interface

Control links

Limit 100 ft (30 m)

rs 232 rs 422 and rs 485
RS-232, RS-422, and RS-485

RS-232: Unbalanced circuit, easily affected by noise;

DB-9 or DB-25 connector.

RS-422: Balanced circuit; four-wire connection.

RS-485: Balanced circuit; supports 32

transmitting/receiving devices.

  • Allows for communications between components, applications, and the internet
  • Enterprise-wide potential
termination types
Termination Types
  • RJ45 (8P8C)
  • DB-9
  • Captive screw
control systems on networks
Control Systems on Networks

Ethernet network capabilities

  • Remote operation of AV control system
  • Asset management
  • User support possibilities
  • Planning
electrical systems introduction
Electrical Systems Introduction
  • Electrical Systems Introduction
  • Electrical Systems
  • Electrical System Commonalities
  • Voltage
  • Current
  • Current: DC Power
  • Current: AC Power
  • Resistance and Impedance
  • Power
  • Ohm's Law
electrical system commonalities
Electrical System Commonalities
  • Different countries have different electrical systems. There is commonality in:
    • The basics of electrical power and distribution
    • The characteristics of electricity
    • How an electrical circuit works
    • How electricity is managed in an AV system
    • Electrical safety issues
  • Measure of electrical pressure
  • Potential force
  • Difference of potential
  • Symbol: V (or E)
  • Flow of electrons
  • Symbol: I (or A)
  • Measured in amperes

Direct Current Alternating Current

current dc power
Current: DC Power
  • Facts about DC power:
    • Charge stays at a constant flow
      • does not reverse direction
    • Can be positive or negative
    • Computer signals, batteries, and power supplies usually use DC power.
current ac power
Current: AC Power
  • Voltage
    • USA: 120 volts
    • Europe: 230 volts
  • Signal alternates
  • Current travels in cycles
  • Frequency in Hertz (Hz) or cps
  • Current returns to source
resistance and impedance
Resistance and Impedance
  • Resistance (R): Opposition to the flow of electrons
    • Measured in ohms (Ω)
    • Resistance in a conductor
  • Impedance (Z): Resistance and reactance in an AC circuit
    • Measured in ohms (Ω)

Power is the rate at which work is done.

  • Symbol: P
  • Measured in watts (W)
  • One watt expended when one amp of direct current flows through a resistance of one ohm
ohm s law
Ohm's Law
  • Current proportional to voltage
    • Voltage increase = current increase if resistance stays the same
  • Current and resistance inversely proportional
    • Resistance increase = current decrease if voltage stays the same
ohm s law formula
Ohm’s Law Formula

Current -

amount flowing though drain

Resistance –

pipe size

electrical circuits introduction
Electrical Circuits Introduction
  • Electrical Circuits
  • Series and Parallel Circuits
  • Grounding
  • Electrical Power and Distribution
  • Electrical Safety
  • Electrical Installation Safety
  • Electrical Systems Summary
series and parallel circuits
Series and Parallel Circuits
  • Series: All current through circuit, voltage divided across load

Parallel: Voltage remains same, current divides

  • Limits human exposure to electricity
  • System ground
    • Connects AC circuit to ground
  • Equipment ground
    • Connects metal parts to infrastructure ground
    • Normally not current-carrying
electrical safety
Electrical Safety
  • Code Standards and AHJ
  • Installed systems
  • Environment
  • Fill allowances
  • Rack grounding
  • Current protection
  • Safe access
signal mangement systems
Signal Mangement Systems
  • Signal Management Systems
  • Wire
  • Cable
  • Conductors
  • Insulation
  • Shield
  • Jackets
  • Cable Types
  • Connectors
  • Connector Guide
  • Signal Integrity
  • Distance Limits
  • Switchers
  • Distribution Amplifiers
  • Rack Building
  • Signal Management Summary

Wire is a single conductor.


Cable is Multiple insulated conductors

  • Material that allows current and voltage to pass
  • Classification
  • Size
  • Construction
  • Conductive material

Insulation protects equipment and people



Protect conductors from interference


Jackets provide physical protection for cable.

signal integrity
Signal Integrity
  • Preserve signal quality
  • Interference and signal integrity
  • EMI
  • Lighting
  • Transformers
  • Many more
distance limits
Distance Limits

Affects signal strength

  • Signal level
  • Signal bandwidth
  • Cable loss characteristics

A cross section of a cable shows signal loss as distance increases.


Selects signal(s) from multiple sources to send to a destination

distribution amplifiers
Distribution Amplifiers

Sends a single signal source to multiple destinations

maintains signal integrity

radio waves introduction
Radio Waves Introduction
  • Radio Waves Introduction
  • Radio Waves
  • Transmitting and Receiving RF
  • Allocations of Radio Frequencies
  • The Importance of Antennas
  • Diversity Systems
  • RF Video Systems
  • Broadcast Transmission
  • Radio Waves Summary
radio waves summary
Radio Waves Summary
  • Transmitting and Receiving RF
  • Frequency Allocation
  • Importance of Antennas
  • Diversity Systems
  • RF Video Systems
  • Broadcast Transmission
customer service
Customer Service
  • What is customer service, and why is itimportant?
  • What makes customer service “good”?
  • What aspects of customer service do you need to work on?
future trends
Future Trends
  • What future trends in AV do you see coming?
  • Which will be the most important? Why?