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Anatomy and Physiology. Terms. Anatomy: the study of the form and structure of an organism Physiology: the study of the process of living organisms, or why and how they work Pathophysiology: the study of how disease occurs and the responses of living organisms to disease processes

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terms
Terms
  • Anatomy: the study of the form and structure of an organism
  • Physiology: the study of the process of living organisms, or why and how they work
  • Pathophysiology: the study of how disease occurs and the responses of living organisms to disease processes
  • Protoplasm: composed of ordinary elements (basic substance of life)
slide3
Cell
  • Cell: microscopic structures that carry on all the functions of life
  • Cell Membrane: the outer protective covering of the cell; AKA plasma membrane/plasmalemma
  • Cytoplasm: a semifluid inside the cell but outside the nucleus
  • Organelles: cell structures that help a cell to function (located in cytoplasm)
slide4
Cell
  • Nucleus: a mass in the cytoplasm (the “brains”)
  • Nucleolus: one or more small, round bodies located inside the nucleus, and important in cell reproduction
  • Chromatin: located in the nucleus and made of DNA and protein
  • Chromosomes: rodlike structures; 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs
  • Each chromosome contains 30,000-45,000 genes
slide5
Cell
  • Genes: the structures that carry inherited characteristics
  • Genome: the total mass of genetic instruction humans inherit from their parents
  • Centrosome: located in the cytoplasm and near the nucleus; contains two centrioles
  • Mitochondria: rod-shaped organelles located via the cytoplasm; “furnaces/powerhouses” of the cell
slide6
Cell
  • Golgi Apparatus: a stack of membrane layers located in the cytoplasm; produces, stores, and packages secretions for discharge from the cell
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum: a fine network of tubular structures located in the cytoplasm
  • Vacuoles: pouchlike structures found via out the cytoplasm that have a vacuolar membrane with the same structure as the cell membrane
slide7
Cell
  • Lysosomes: oval or round bodies found via out the cytoplasm
  • Pinocytic Vesicles: pocketlike folds in the cell membrane
cell reproduction
Cell Reproduction
  • Mitosis: a form of asexual reproduction where a cell divides into two identical cells
  • Each chromosome then consists of 2 identical strands (chromatids) joined together by centromere
  • Meiosis: sex cells (gametes) divide
  • Zygote: new cell
  • A hollow ball-like mass of cells called a blastocyst within 4-5 days
cell reproduction2
Cell Reproduction
  • Stem cells are in the blastocyst
  • Stem cells have the ability to transform themselves into any of the body’s specialized cells and perform many different functions
  • Adult stem cells do NOT have the ability to evolve into every kind of cell
tissue
Tissue
  • Tissue: when cells of the same type join together for a common purpose
  • 60% - 99% of tissue is water
  • Tissue Fluid: slightly salty in nature
  • Dehydration: not enough tissue fluid
  • Edema: too much tissue fluid; swelling of the tissues
  • Epithelial Tissue: covers the surface of the bodt and is the main tissue in the skin
tissue1
Tissue
  • The supporting fabric of organs and other body parts
  • Soft: adipose (fatty tissue)
  • Fibrous connective tissue: ligaments and tendons
  • Hard: cartilage and bone
  • Cartilage: a tough, elastic material that is found between the bones of the spine and at the end of long bones
tissue2
Tissue
  • Bone: similar to cartilage but has calcium salts, nerves, and blood vessels; osseous tissue
  • Blood and lymph are classified as liquid connective tissue (vascular tissue)
  • Nerve Tissue: made up of special cells called neurons
  • Muscle Tissue: produces power and movement by contraction of muscle fibers
  • Three kinds: skeletal, cardiac, visceral (smooth)
organs and systems
Organs and Systems
  • Organ: two or more tissues joined together to perform a specific function
  • System: organs and other body parts joined together to perform a particular function
  • Cells combine to form tissues, tissues combine to form organs, and organs and other body parts combine to form systems