Module 6: Fluency Evidence and Strategies. PPLSP Training Modules. 1. Introduction to the Five Components of Reading 2. Introduction to the PPLSP and CBLA 3. Instructional Strategies 4. Phonemic Awareness Evidence and Strategies 5. Phonics Evidence and Strategies
1.Introduction to the Five Components of Reading
2.Introduction to the PPLSP and CBLA
4.Phonemic Awareness Evidence and Strategies
5.Phonics Evidence and Strategies
6.Fluency Evidence and Strategies
7.Vocabulary Evidence and Strategies
8.Comprehension Evidence and Strategies
9.Reading Strategies for Secondary Teachers in other Content Areas
10. Bodies of Evidence and a Process for Building the ILP
We’re army ants.
We have no home.
You’re lucky if
We miss your place.
What is fluency?
Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately, quickly, with appropriate speed and proper expression.
1. Define fluency
2. Describe three skills necessary for a
student to be a fluent reader
3. Be able to suggest strategies and best
practices effective for increasing fluency
4. Site examples of research associated
1. Accuracy in decoding.
2. Automaticity in word recognition
and word parts
3. Use of expression and prosody
Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension.
It frees the reader to use resources to process meaning.
The nuclear chromosomes of all eukaryotic organisms are long, linear double helixes but some chromosomes are circular. These include the chromosomes of prokaryotic bacteria, the chromosomes of organelles such as the mitochondria and chloroplasts that are found inside eukaryotic cells, and the chromosomes of some viruses, including the papovaviruses that can cause cancers in animals and humans. Such circular chromosomes consist of covalently closed, double-stranded circular DNA molecules. Although neither strand of these circular double helixes has an end, the two strands are still antiparallel in polarity.
Accuracy is the ability to correctly break words into individual parts using phonic knowledge.
The non-fluent reader who lacks accuracy in decoding and word recognition will readslowly and laboriously because they are still struggling with “breaking the phonetic code” to attach sounds to letters and to blend letter sounds into words.
They will mispronounce, make multiple attempts, guess, and not self correct.
They may not make meaning from text.
My favorite blumfit is the plenar blumfit. Plenar blumfits like to live on the Flendal Trump where it is very sniggled. But I can see them at the zoffestel. They have zoosefrosts with creamy blestfal swimfors.
Automaticity is the ability to recognize QUICKLY words and word phrases.
The non-fluent reader who lacks automaticity reads word by word in a slow, choppy, plodding fashion.
Words may be accurate, but the reader takes considerable conscious effort and time.
Rapid naming of letter, words, different
syllable types, objects
Speed drills with timed readings
Repeated readings of independent text
Until students can read it quickly.
Student and teacher read simultaneously
at a rapid rate.
Expression and Prosody is the ability to read print with an understanding of phrasing, intonation, and punctuation.
Prosody is associated with rhythm, meter and verse--making the words dance!
A student will need assistance with expression and prosody when you hear flat, monotone reading with inattention to punctuation cues, emphasis and phrasing.
“Robot” reading: “Jon-a-than”
Frequent pauses or unnatural pausing
“I went - to the - store.”
Teaching Reading in Middle School
By Laura Robb
Put Reading First
The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read
Find the student’s instructional reading level--reading with 90% accuracy.
Have student practice text repeatedly until he/she can read it at independent level--95% accuracy
Have student read repeatedly at independent level until he/she can reach an appropriate speed--refer to tables
Repeat steps with different genre and with increasing difficulty.
When you are listening to your students read orally listen for choppy, plodding, monotone--this student needs fluency strategies. Assess with observation checklists or anecdotal notes.
Take timed samples of students’ reading and compare their performance (number of words read correctly per minute) with published oral reading fluency norms. Formal assessments suggested by CBLA--ex: DIBELS
Fluency is not an end in itself, but a critical gateway to comprehension.
Fluent reading frees resources to process meaning.
Fluency develops gradually and through consistent practice…ideally 15 minutes a day!
Modeling and repeated readings are the most effective
Fluency is a prerequisite if the primary aim is to construct meaning.
Fluency in Beginning Reading
From DIBELS Website
Upon a twig
I sit and pray
For something big
To wend my way:
I swallow them