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Module 6: Fluency Evidence and Strategies. PPLSP Training Modules. 1. Introduction to the Five Components of Reading 2. Introduction to the PPLSP and CBLA 3. Instructional Strategies 4. Phonemic Awareness Evidence and Strategies 5. Phonics Evidence and Strategies

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pplsp training modules
PPLSP Training Modules

1.Introduction to the Five Components of Reading

2.Introduction to the PPLSP and CBLA

3.Instructional Strategies

4.Phonemic Awareness Evidence and Strategies

5.Phonics Evidence and Strategies

6.Fluency Evidence and Strategies

7.Vocabulary Evidence and Strategies

8.Comprehension Evidence and Strategies

9.Reading Strategies for Secondary Teachers in other Content Areas

10. Bodies of Evidence and a Process for Building the ILP

the army ants by douglas florian
The Army Ants by Douglas Florian





We’re army ants.

We swarm.

We fight.

We have no home.

We roam.

We race.

You’re lucky if

We miss your place.


What is fluency?

Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately, quickly, with appropriate speed and proper expression.

intended goals
Intended Goals

Participants will:

1. Define fluency

2. Describe three skills necessary for a

student to be a fluent reader

3. Be able to suggest strategies and best

practices effective for increasing fluency

4. Site examples of research associated

with fluency

3 big skills for fluency
3 Big Skills for Fluency

1. Accuracy in decoding.

2. Automaticity in word recognition

and word parts

3. Use of expression and prosody


why is fluency important
Why is Fluency Important?

Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension.

It frees the reader to use resources to process meaning.


Some DNA Molecules Are Circular Instead of Linear (Activity)

The nuclear chromosomes of all eukaryotic organisms are long, linear double helixes but some chromosomes are circular. These include the chromosomes of prokaryotic bacteria, the chromosomes of organelles such as the mitochondria and chloroplasts that are found inside eukaryotic cells, and the chromosomes of some viruses, including the papovaviruses that can cause cancers in animals and humans. Such circular chromosomes consist of covalently closed, double-stranded circular DNA molecules. Although neither strand of these circular double helixes has an end, the two strands are still antiparallel in polarity.

skill 1 accuracy
Skill #1: Accuracy

Accuracy is the ability to correctly break words into individual parts using phonic knowledge.

when there is a need with accuracy
When there is a need with Accuracy

The non-fluent reader who lacks accuracy in decoding and word recognition will readslowly and laboriously because they are still struggling with “breaking the phonetic code” to attach sounds to letters and to blend letter sounds into words.

They will mispronounce, make multiple attempts, guess, and not self correct.

They may not make meaning from text.

non fluent readers may
Non-fluent readers may…
  • Say: “sat for sad”, “protest for protect”
  • Make multiple attempts at pronunciation, such as “sat….set…..sad”
  • Not self correct when meaning is lost such as “The cat sad on the chair.”
sure fire strategies
Sure Fire Strategies
  • Provide students with opportunities to re- read the same passage orally several times. The focus is on accuracy.
  • Focus on phonics strategies for correct letter-sound recognition, correct naming of letters, words, & objects
  • Use choral reading with teacher and students reading together
  • Record text for paired reading
  • Use materials at student’s independent level
    • Keep passages short (50-200 words)
    • Make sure student has 85% accuracy
    • Do paired reading with feedback

Read aloud Activity for 100% Accuracy in 10-13 seconds!

My favorite blumfit is the plenar blumfit. Plenar blumfits like to live on the Flendal Trump where it is very sniggled. But I can see them at the zoffestel. They have zoosefrosts with creamy blestfal swimfors.

skill 2 automaticity
Skill #2: Automaticity

Automaticity is the ability to recognize QUICKLY words and word phrases.

when there is a need with automaticity
When there is a need with Automaticity

The non-fluent reader who lacks automaticity reads word by word in a slow, choppy, plodding fashion.

Words may be accurate, but the reader takes considerable conscious effort and time.

the student
The student...
  • Reads words sound by sound instead of in chunks /b/l/o/t/ for blot
  • Reads at a laborious pace with minimal sight word knowledge
  • Reads word by word instead of phrase by phrase: “in-the-tree” for “in the tree”
  • Reads with hesitations and poor phrasing--”The/man got/off of/the ladder when/the bell/rang.”
sure fire strategies17
Sure Fire Strategies

Rapid naming of letter, words, different

syllable types, objects

Speed drills with timed readings

Repeated readings of independent text

Until students can read it quickly.

Student and teacher read simultaneously

at a rapid rate.

skill 3 expression prosody
Skill #3: Expression/Prosody

Expression and Prosody is the ability to read print with an understanding of phrasing, intonation, and punctuation.

Prosody is associated with rhythm, meter and verse--making the words dance!

when there is a need with expression and prosody
When there is a need with Expression and Prosody

A student will need assistance with expression and prosody when you hear flat, monotone reading with inattention to punctuation cues, emphasis and phrasing.

“Robot” reading: “Jon-a-than”

Frequent pauses or unnatural pausing

“I went - to the - store.”

sure fire strategies20
Sure Fire Strategies
  • Text segmentation
  • “Echo-Read” poetry
  • Memorize and recite poetry
  • Present Short Plays or Readers Theater Scripts
strategies continued
Strategies continued….
  • Tape recorded readings
  • Model expression and then lead the whole class in several choral readings of the text.

Teaching Reading in Middle School

By Laura Robb

when should fluency instruction begin
When Should Fluency Instruction Begin?
  • When….
  • oral reading from a text has more than 10% word recognition errors.
  • a student cannot read with expression.
  • the students’ comprehension is poor for the text that is ready orally.

Put Reading First

The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read


suggested process for improving fluency
Suggested Process for Improving Fluency

Step 1

Find the student’s instructional reading level--reading with 90% accuracy.

Step 2

Have student practice text repeatedly until he/she can read it at independent level--95% accuracy

Step 3

Have student read repeatedly at independent level until he/she can reach an appropriate speed--refer to tables

Repeat steps with different genre and with increasing difficulty.

what is the easiest way to assess fluency
What is the Easiest Way to Assess Fluency


When you are listening to your students read orally listen for choppy, plodding, monotone--this student needs fluency strategies. Assess with observation checklists or anecdotal notes.


Take timed samples of students’ reading and compare their performance (number of words read correctly per minute) with published oral reading fluency norms. Formal assessments suggested by CBLA--ex: DIBELS

what research says about fluency
What Research Says About Fluency
  • Has a reciprocal relationship with comprehension, each fosters the other
  • Is more directly related to text comprehension than word recognition
  • Is the most neglected component of reading improvement
  • An appropriate rate is necessary for , but not sufficient for comprehension
continued research
Continued Research…...
  • Develops gradually over time with practice
  • Requires consistent, monitored practice on independent or instructional reading level text
  • Direct instruction shows results well beyond 5th grade for struggling readers
  • Research supports oral reading practice as an avenue to improve fluency, but there is insufficient support for silent reading
continued research27
Continued Research….
  • Oral reading is beneficial to reading, but Round Robin reading prohibits ability to read fluently
  • Modeling and repeated readings are two of the most effective interventions
  • Improves with support from peers and adults
  • Listening to text read fluently improves fluency better than silent practice
best practices in instruction
Best Practices in Instruction
  • Provide direct instruction and practice with the content of a text (not word lists)
  • Use short passages (50-200 words)
  • Use a variety of genre
  • Use only passages at the individual’s independent reading level
  • Increase the level of difficulty of the passages
  • Provide approximately 15 minutes daily
  • Teach during small, guided reading groups, not during shared reading in large groups
best practices continued
Best Practices Continued….
  • Break longer text in large group instruction into smaller sections, assign specific passages to individuals by reading ability, and afford ample practice time before students read aloud in front of the group
  • Assess progress regularly (every 2 weeks) with timed samples on text that has been mastered for accuracy
  • Provide readers with decoding strategies to remove the barrier to fluency
best practices continued30
Best Practices Continued….
  • Use authentic reasons to read
  • Provide students with feedback (graph their progress
  • Model fluency through teacher read alouds
  • Maximize the amount of practice
  • Allow sufficient time for self correction
  • Use oral reading as a tool for teaching self monitoring of reading
and remember
And Remember…...

Fluency is not an end in itself, but a critical gateway to comprehension.

Fluent reading frees resources to process meaning.

Fluency develops gradually and through consistent practice…ideally 15 minutes a day!

Modeling and repeated readings are the most effective


Fluency is a prerequisite if the primary aim is to construct meaning.

Fluency in Beginning Reading

From DIBELS Website

the praying mantis by douglas florian
The Praying Mantis by Douglas Florian

Upon a twig

I sit and pray

For something big

To wend my way:

A caterpillar,


Or bee---

I swallow them