Best Practices for Teaching the Literature Review to Graduate Students Presented by: Jim Alderman (UNF), Alyse Ergood (FAU), Carol Maksian (FGCU), Kristy Padron (FAU)
Considerations in Library Instruction for Graduate Students • Who else is in graduate school? • What factors influence library instruction to graduate students? • Which skills do librarians need to have? • Teaching the Literature Review • The Purpose • Sample Literature Reviews • Resources for the Literature Review
else Who is in Graduate School? ^ • What are the effects of these characteristics? • Class Environment • Instructor-Student interactions • Motivation • Teaching: Androgyny & Adult learning practices • Prior knowledge & life experience • Communication & Cultural Exchange • Recent Graduates with Bachelor Degrees • Women (this also depends on the program) • Returning Adult Students • International Students and
Graduate Student Enrollment in Florida’s State Universities Statistics from Florida Board of Governors) http://www.flbog.edu/resources/iud/enrollment_search.php
Graduate Student Enrollment in Florida’s State Universities -- Full or Part Time
Graduate Student Enrollment by Broad Program Area • Top program areas: • Health Professions to Clinical Sciences • Education • Business Management/ Marketing • Engineering • Biological/Medical Sciences • Physical Sciences
Level/Scope of Degree What factors influence library instruction to graduate students? Type of Enrollment/Attendance • Content • Assignments • Research needs (lab/field-based, literature reviews, type of information resources) Subject Area/ Discipline • Ph.D / Ed.D • Masters Level • Certificate / Credentials Use of Library • Full-Time • Part-Time • Accelerated • Faculty Influence • Limited Contact w/ Librarians • Students Ignore print • Students discover library late in program
Challenges to providing library instruction or meeting needs of graduate students: • Lack knowledge of library’s resources and services. • Varied experience levels and ability with doing research. • Library or research anxiety. • Search the internet for articles (Google Scholar) vs. library resources. • Despite instruction on scholarly research, avoid searching scholarly resources due to discomfort with library tools and level of difficulty of material.
Challenges to providing library instruction: cont. • Increase in learning platforms for learning (face to face, online, blended) • Different learning styles and comfort levels with technology lends to technophobia. • With that in mind, these same students may also be uncomfortable with online tutorials.
What do graduate students need to use the library for? • Search for -most of which can be done remotely and access resources: • Research materials (including books, theses/dissertations and special collection materials) • Scholarly research articles via indexes/databases, electronic journals and larger catalogs (especially full text) • Interlibrary loan materials • Why: To do research for research and critical inquiry papers.
What brings graduate students to the library building? • Check out books and interlibrary loan materials, access reserves and look at microfilm. • Reference assistance. • Inability to locate articles online via library or Internet, and inability to access full text due to the learning curve for using electronic resources, link resolvers, database issues, etc. • Discipline specific Library workshops, scheduled library classes and other classes (RefWorks tool and computer courses).
Which skills do librarians need to possess? • Skill and confidence in subject area resources • Seek additional training • Mentoring • Develop active relationships with liaisons • Pedagogy • Adult learning concepts (Androgyny) • More interaction; established set of values; have competing interests (family, job, relationships, school) • Consider instruction in light of the changing role of librarians (increasingly the “tech” expert)
Tech skills might also include facility with using word processing and presentation software. • Bibliographic management software facility is a must. • Questioning and listening skills are a must. • Patience, patience, patience, patience….
Teaching the Literature Review The Purpose of the Literature Review: • Set the background on what has been researched on a topic. • Show why a topic is significant to a subject area. • Discover relationships between ideas. • Identify major themes & concepts. • Identify critical gaps & points of disagreement. • Help the researcher turn a network of articles into a coherent view of the literature.
Teaching the Literature Review • Not an annotated bibliography or a laundry list of articles. • Integrates and synthesizes what is found into something new.
Teaching the Literature Review What is taught will depend on the level of student. • A lit. review for undergraduates may not require the depth or scope as graduates. • Basic resources such as Proquest Central or Academic Search Premier are not sufficient for doing a comprehensive literature review at the graduate level. • Graduate students should know about subject-area databases and Web of Science (or other citation databases). • Additional information sources: WorldCat, SUL Union Catalog, Dissertation databases (Proquest & WorldCat).
Teaching the Literature Review Reference / Teaching Tips: • Advise researcher to sift through what has already been done with an eye toward finding something new. • It is not necessary to suggest topic refinements to the student. Ask questions that could help the student discover his or her own refinements. Suggest previewing what others have undertaken. • Remember that a topic in education might also have sociological and psychological underpinnings as well. Suggest related areas as needed. • Suggest to researcher that consultation with the faculty adviser might be the next step in the process.
Teaching the Literature Review Potentially, these are advanced researchers. The librarian should make an effort to assess skill levels before proceeding with instruction. • Go beyond “Google” search strategies. • Emphasize that professional terminology might not be standard across fields. For example, terminology used in PsycInfo might differ from that used in ERIC or Sociological Abstracts. • Reinforce the notion of the literature review as a discovery process. The researcher is moving from what is known into (possibly) uncharted waters. • Advise them to read other people’s literature reviews or related reviews in your subject area.
Sample Literature Reviews • Business • Casson, M., & Lee, J. (2011). The Origin and Development of Markets: A Business History Perspective. Business History Review, 85(1), 9-37. doi: 10.1017/S000768050000018 • Education • Watts, J. J., & Robertson, N. N. (2011). Burnout in university teaching staff: a systematic literature review. Educational Research, 53(1), 33-50. doi:10.1080/00131881.2011.552235 • Psychology Literature Review Paper http://faculty.mwsu.edu/psychology/Laura.Spiller/Experimental/sample_apa_style_litreview.pdf (Undergraduate paper)
Sample Literature Reviews cont. • Health Care • Walker, W. (2008, February 15). Accident and emergency staff opinion on the effects of family presence during adult resuscitation: critical literature review.Journal of Advanced Nursing, 61(4), 348-362. Retrieved July 7, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. • Paul, F., & Rattray, J. (2008, May). Short- and long-term impact of critical illness on relatives: literature review.Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62(3), 276-292. Retrieved July 6, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. • Science • Jonkman, S., Vrijling, J., & Vrouwenvelder, A.. (2008). Methods for the estimation of loss of life due to floods: a literature review and a proposal for a new method. Natural Hazards, 46(3), 353-389. Retrieved June 9, 2011, from ProQuest Science Journals.
Useful Texts for Teaching the Literature Review • Fink, A. (2005). Conducting research literature reviews: From the Internet to paper. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications. • Machi, L. A., & McEvoy, B. T. (2009). The literature review: Six steps to success. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin Press.
Resources for the Literature Review – Web Pages and Tutorials • Adelphi University Libraries. Conducting a Literature Review in the Education and Behavioral Scienceshttp://libraries.adelphi.edu/research/tutorials/EdLitReview/content/(Web Interactive Tutorial) • **North Carolina State Libraries. Literature Reviews: An Overview for Graduate Students. http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/tutorials/lit-review/ Video tutorial -- 10 minutes • University of Wisconsin @ Madison Writing Center’s Writing Handbook. Learn How to Write a Literaturehttp://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/ReviewofLiterature.html • University of Santa Cruz Library. How to Write a Literature Review. http://library.ucsc.edu/help/howto/write-a-literature-review • University of Arizona Libraries. Research and Writing Literature Reviews. http://www.library.arizona.edu/help/tutorials/litreviews/whatis.html • University of North Carolina @ Chapel Hill’s Writing Center. Literature Reviews. http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/literature_review.html • University of Toronto The Literature Review: A Few Tips on Conducting It. http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/specific-types-of-writing/literature-review
Resources for the Literature Review – Web Pages and Tutorials cont. • The College of New Jersey Library. How to Conduct a Literature Review. http://www.tcnj.edu/~library/research/guides/HowtoConductaLiteratureReview.htm • U Penn Libraries. Preparing Literature Reviews in the Social Sciences - Research Guide. http://gethelp.library.upenn.edu/guides/general/socscilitrevs.html • Deakin University Library. The Literature Review. http://www.deakin.edu.au/library/findout/research/litrev.php • CQ University (Australia) Library. Literature Review Tutorial. http://libguides.library.cqu.edu.au/litreview(A multimedia tutorial. See “Resources” tab for links to other relevant websites.) • University of North Carolina, Charlotte, Department of Political Science. A Guide to Writing Literature Reviews in Political Science and Public Administration. http://politicalscience.uncc.edu/images/stories/docs/litreviews.pdf • University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, Communication in the Biological Sciences, Department of Biology. Literature Review Paper. http://www.uwlax.edu/biology/communication/ReviewPapers.html
Resources for the Literature Review – Web Pages and Tutorials cont. • Boston College University Libraries. Writing a Literature Review. http://libguides.bc.edu/litreview • Boise State University Library. Social Work Literature Review. http://guides.boisestate.edu/content.php?pid=58258&sid=426586 • University of Southern Maine Department of Environmental Science. Literature Review Online Tutorial. http://library.usm.maine.edu/tutorials/esp/index.htm (Interactive Web Tutorial) • American University Library. Literature Review Tutorial. http://www.library.american.edu/Help/tutorials/lit_review/index.html • Robert Gordon University Library. How to do a Literature Search. http://www4.rgu.ac.uk/library/howto/page.cfm?pge=25989 • Saul Greenberg, University of Calgary. Wiki :How to write a literature review: http://pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~saul/wiki/pmwiki.php/Chapter1/HowToWriteALiteratureReview
Resources for the Literature Review- Web Pages and Tutorials cont. • Duke University Writing Center. Literature Review. http://uwp.duke.edu/uploads/assets/lit_review.pdf • Henry Madden Library, California State University, Fresno. Literature Review Clinic. http://libguides.csufresno.edu/content.php?pid=24538
Effective Collaborations for Teaching the Literature Review • Plattsburgh State UniversityToth, M. (2005). Research and writing and theses-oh my! The journey of a collaboratively taught graduate research and writing course. The Reference Librarian, 43(89), 81-92. Retrieved June 6, 2011 from Library and Information Science Full Text database. • Shenandoah UniversityGreen, R and Bowser, M.( 2006). Observations from the field. Journal of Library Administration, 45(1),185-202. Retrieved June 1, 2011, from Library and Information Science Full Text database. • Green, R.(2006) Fostering a Community of Doctoral Learners, Journal of Library Administration, 45, (1), 169-183. Retrieved June 8, 2011, from Informaworld database.
Effective Collaborations Between Library and College Faculty for Teaching the Literature Review and Graduate Research cont. • Ohio UniversityChang, L and Houdek, R. (2006). Teaching Computer Science Graduate StudentsScholarly Literature Review Techniques.October 28 – 31, 2006, San Diego, CA36th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Retrieved June 7, 2011 from IEE database. • Oregon State UniversityRempel, Hannah Gascho and McMillen, Paula S.(2008). Using courseware discussion boards to engage graduate students in online library workshops. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 13(4), 363-380. Retrieved June 6, 2011, from Taylor & Francis Social Science and Humanities database.
References • Providing Library Instruction to Graduate Students: A Review of the Literature, by Barbara Blummer (2009) in Public Services Quarterly, 5(1): 15-39. • Blummer, B, Kenton, J.M. and Song, L (2010). The Design and Assessment of a Proposed Library Training Unit for Education Graduate Students. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 15, 227–242, Retrieved June 7,2011, from Library Literature & Information Full Text database. • Boote, D., and Beile, P. (2005). Scholars before researchers: on the centrality of the dissertation literature review in research preparation. Educational Researcher, 34(6), 3-15. Retrieved June 8, 2011, from Education Full Text database. • Fleming-May, R and Yuro, L. (2009), From student to scholar: the academic library and social sciences PhD students’ transformation. Libraries and the Academy, 9(2), 199-221. Retrieved June 7, 2011, from Project MUSE database.
References cont. • Harkins, M.J., Rodrigues, D.B., and Orlov, S. (2011). Where to start?: consideration for faculty and librarians in delivering information literacy instruction for graduate students. Practical Academic Librarianship: The International Journal of the SLA Academic Division, 1(1), 28-50. • Harrington, M. (2009). Information Literacy and Research-Intensive Graduate Students: Enhancing the Role of Research Librarians. Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian, 28, 179–201. Retrieved June 8, 2011, from Library Literature & Information Full Text database. • User Education for Graduate Students: Never a Given, and Not Always Received, by Helene C. Williams (2000) in Teaching the new library to today's users: reaching international, minority, senior citizens, gay/lesbian, first-generation college, at-risk, graduate and returning students, and distance learners. Trudi E. Jacobson (ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman, pp 145-172.