Scaling up an introduction
1 / 15

Scaling Up An Introduction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Scaling Up An Introduction. Presentation in Washington, DC on May 8, 2013 Johannes F. Linn Emerging Markets Forum and Brookings 1. Preamble: What’s in a word…?. Two meanings of “scaling up”: “increasing the amount of money” “taking successful programs to scale”

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Scaling Up An Introduction' - pilis

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Scaling up an introduction

Scaling Up An Introduction

Presentation in Washington, DC on May 8, 2013

Johannes F. Linn

Emerging Markets Forum and Brookings


Preamble what s in a word
Preamble:What’s in a word…?

Two meanings of “scaling up”:

  • “increasing the amount of money”

  • “taking successful programs to scale”

    Today we’re concerned with 2.

What s the problem
What’s the problem?

Ambitious global development goals (MDGs, 1m rural poor, etc.), but…

  • Fragmentation of government and aid programs

  • Difficulties of coordination

  • Failure to “connect the dots”, i.e., to reap the benefits of scale through learning, replication and partnership

     need to scale up successful interventions

Scaling up a general approach
Scaling up: a general approach

  • Define scaling up:

    • “Scaling up means expanding, replicating, adapting and sustaining successful policies, programs or projects in different places and over time to reach a greater number of people.” (Hartmann and Linn, 2008)

  • The key question: If some intervention works as a pilot, how do we take it to scale?

  • Or: How do we develop pathways from innovation to learning and scaling up beyond individual project?

The pathway from innovation to learning and scaling up
The pathway from innovation to learning and scaling up



Scale up

New idea, model, approach





& KM







The cycle of innovation learning and scaling up
The cycle of innovation, learning and scaling up

  • Innovation, learning and scaling up are separate, albeit linked processes.

  • They are generally complementary, but compete for resources.

  • Not every innovation can or should be scaled up.

  • Not every scaling up needs to involve an innovation.

  • The innovation-learning-scaling up cycle has no blue-print, is not linear or fixed –

    • but context-specific, iterative and flexible

    • but it helps having a framework and being systematic

How to define pathways for scaling up
How to define pathways for scaling up

Need to go beyond individual projects and develop scaling up pathways over time:

  • Define the desired scale and time horizon (“beyond project”)

  • Define the intermediate steps and results (“for the project”)

  • Focus on “drivers” and “spaces” for scaling up (next slide)

  • Select the operational instruments/approaches

    • With own resources, or with partners (co-financing, hand-off, etc.)

    • Financing mechanisms

    • Institutional approaches

    • Implementation/management modalities

  • Monitor and evaluate

Drivers and spaces define the pathways for scaling up
“Drivers” and “spaces” define the pathways for scaling up


  • Innovative ideas

  • Vision of scale

  • Leadership/champions

  • Stake holders

  • Market demand

  • External catalysts

  • Incentives and accountability

Spaces (Constraints)

  • Fiscal and financial resources

  • Organizational (institutional and human) resources

  • Policy

  • Political

  • Cultural

  • Partnerships

  • Learning (incl. M&E)


Risks of inadequate consideration of key scaling up factors
Risks of inadequate consideration of key scaling up factors scaling up

  • Opportunities for scaling up may be missed (“Type 1 error”) or scaling up may be done badly (“Type 2 error”).

  • Failure to identify financial/policy/capacity/political constraints may limit the potential for scaling up later.

    • Not paying attention to costs may create “boutique” approaches that only work on a small scale.

    • Setting up special purpose entities (e.g., PIUs), rather than working through ministries, may limit institutional options later.

  • Lack of effective, timely M&E may lead to poor decisions in scaling up

  • Failure to work with partners early may limit their buy-in later (esp. important with PPPs)

Towards a new scaling up model with ppp status quo
Towards a new scaling up model with PPP: Status quo scaling up

Source, Chandy et al. 2013

Hybrid scaling up model
Hybrid scaling up model scaling up

Source, Chandy et al. 2013

M pesa a hybrid model of mobile money service in kenya
M-PESA: A Hybrid Model of Mobile Money Service in Kenya scaling up

  • Initially developed as micro-credit payment mechanism, then scaled up as mobile money service

  • Key actors: Vodafone and DFID challenge fund; Kenyan microfinance institution (Faulu); government

  • Exemplary customer driven design, management, execution

  • Regulation followed innovation

Overall conclusion 5 gaps and 5 recommendations
Overall conclusion: scaling up5 gaps and 5 recommendations

  • Partnership gap: public/private actors should explore joint/complementary approaches and instruments with joint/hybrid funding of programs designed to bring partners together so they can scale up successful interventions;

  • Incentives gap: governments/donors/COSs need to provide incentives to their partners and their own managers/staff to pursue scaling up;

  • Evaluation gap: evaluations of government/donor/CSO projects should include an assessment of the scaling up practices;

  • Institutional information gap: Governments/donors /CSOs should review and develop their institutional approaches to scaling up;

  • Mindset gap: We need to move from a focus on “making the project work” to a focus on “how do we move beyond the project if it works”?

Some references
Some references scaling up

  • A. Hartmann and J. Linn. 2008. “Scaling Up: A Framework and Lessons for Development Effectiveness from Literature and Practice.” Wolfensohn Center Working Paper No. 5. Brookings.

  • J. Linn, A. Hartmann, H. Kharas, R. Kohl, and B. Massler. 2010. “Scaling Up the Fight Against Rural Poverty: An Institutional Review of IFAD’s Approach”, Global Working Paper No. 39 , Brookings.

  • L. Chandy, A. Hosono, H. Kharas and J. Linn, 2013 Getting to Scale: How to Bring Developmnt Solutions to Millions of Poor People. Washington, DC. Brookings Press.

Thank you

Thank you! scaling up