Walker Exhaust Systems • Edward Bateman • David Sutcliffe • Martina Kancheva • Peiwen Huang • James Brown
Introduction • Section 1 – The Economy • Section 2 – The Government • Section 3 – Labour Force • Section 4 – Education • Section 5 – Local Assembly Units • Section 6 – Infrastructure • Section 7 – Specific Location Manufacturing • Section 8 – Specific Location Research & Development
The economy Section 1
Total GDP • The GDP in the UK is the second largest in Europe and fifth largest in the world with a Gross Domestic Product of $2.7 trillion, measured on purchasing power parity basis. Source:www.worldcompetitiveness.com
GDP Growth • Note the difference between the two countries growth in the past 5 years. The UK averaging above 2.2% growth, whereas the German economy has exceeded 1% growth only 3 times in the past 20 quarters.
Foreign Direct Investment In 2007, the cumulative ‘‘stock’’ of foreign investment in the UK was more than US$1,350 billion, the second highest level of FDI stock globally, behind only the US. In 2007, the UK attracted the second highest amount of foreign investment globally, receiving US$224 billion of FDI inflows, representing 28 per cent of all FDI inflows into the European Union Source: www.worldcompetitiveness.com
Interest Rates As we can see the Interest Rates in UK have traditionally been very steady. The Bank of England ensure a stable interest rate. We can see the effect of the recent credit crisis as the Bank of England and the European Central Bank attempt to stimulate spending via lower interest rates.
Exchange Rates • The Euro has risen to 0.9 against the pound. • Significance with regard a Japanese company. • The Euro zone relies hugely on exports, therefore the strengthening of their currency could prove dangerous. • With an autonomous body such as the Bank of England, the UK has more control over hot money and therefore exchange rates.
Inflation • The UK has traditionally had a stable inflation, as we can see since 2000 it has been centred on the Bank of England’s target of 2%. The German inflation rate, shown on right has clearly been more erratic.
Unemployment • The UK has consistently enjoyed a low unemployment rate as it is one of the Government’s main priorities. As we can see the rate has consistently been below 3.4%. The German unemployment rate has not gone below 7% in the last ten years
The Government Section 2
Taxation The UK has been operating with a 28% corporate taxation system since April 2008. As we can see this is one of the lowest in Europe, considerably less than rivals France and Germany. It is also a considerable drop from 41% in Japan Source: European Commission 2008
Taxation Cont. Source: Forbes Magazine, Tax Misery Index 2008
R&D Tax Credits and Incentives • The R&D Tax Credits, the Technology Programme and other R&D Support Products. • R&D Tax Credits are the biggest single funding mechanism for business R&D provided by Government. • R&D tax credits are at the heart of the Government's strategy to raise levels of business investment in R&D and encourage business innovation by providing a tax incentive • So for a large company such asWalker, in addition to the normal 100 per cent deduction,Walkerwould be entitled to a further deduction from their taxable income of 30 per cent of their current spending on qualifying R&D.
Labour Force Section 3
UK’s Labour force • Over 30 million people. • In 2008- 29.42 million people in work . • Employment level at 74.4%.
Cost of Labour Force • Average Annual Salaries • National Insurance Contributions
Flexibility • World Bank Doing Business 2005 survey. • Average hours worked per week
Foreign workers • European Economic Area (Romania and Bulgaria) • Non Economic Area
Age of Workforce • 60, 975, 000 in 2007 • Average age was 39 years. • The working age accounted for 62%. • Of working age, 52% were below 40.
Foreign Direct Investment • Japanese Companies Accounts for 26.8% of employment • Fujitsu employed 20,000 people in the UK in 2003.
Education Section 4
Universities • 6 of the top universities globally. Oxford and Cambridge. • Over 650000 students graduate annually • 2.3 million people currently studying a wide range of education courses
Automotive Universities • There are 16 key Universities for the automotive industry.
Design and Performance • 21 key universities for Design and Performance Engineering Centres of Excellence
MBA Courses and Language • highest number of leading MBA courses in Europe, with 15 • 38 per cent of the UK population are able to speak a world language other than their mother tongue
Local Assembly Units Section 5
Benefits of LAUs • Transport Costs • Closer links • Quicker problem resolution • Overall saving forWalkerand OEMs • Expertise and pride
Costs • Inflexibility • Opportunistic re-contracting • JIT • Added further costs
Potential Layout • Parent Plant • Manufacturing Component Parts • Local Assembly Unit: • Final Assembly
Infrastructure Section 6
Road Infrastructure England has an extensive road network, with £7 billion invested each year.
Rail Infrastructure • Efficient • Competitive • Reliable • Fast • No congestion issue • Environmentally friendly • Significant growth • 11.5% market share • Onward to Europe
Specific Location Section 7 Manufacturing
Birmingham Integrated plants: combined steel making and rolling mills Other rolling mills Tube mills
Birmingham Cont. • Close proximity to 7 manufacturing plants. • Toyota(2), VW, Jaguar , Peugeot, BMW, Rover, Ford(2), Honda and Nissan. • Clear market for exhausts.
Birmingham Cont. • Road & Rail Hub: • Channel Tunnel Rail Depot • 75% UK Population in ½ day
Birmingham Cont. Birmingham International Airport: • 40 Direct Destinations Worldwide • Fastest Growing Airport • 2nd Largest outside London • 5 times winner of “Best Business Airport” • 9.2 Million Passengers (2007) Passenger Transport: • 3 Mainline Rail Stations • Metro • 24/7 Bus Service Seaports • Felixtowe, Dover and Hull 4.5 hrs Drive
Birmingham Cont. Workforce: • Competitive Wage Rates • 2.5m people Foreign Investment: • Top in UK • 5th in Europe Manufacturing Centre: • 20% Workforce Logistics Companies: • 300+
Birmingham Cont. Lifestyle: • Vibrant arts, culture and nightlife. • Quality of life ahead of Dubai, Prague and Hong Kong • Bull Ring
Birmingham • Steel Manufacturers • Car Manufacturers • Strong, Versatile Infrastructure and Logistical Options • Large, Competitive Workforce • High Foreign Investment • Manufacturing Hub • Good Lifestyle
Section 8 Research & Development Specific Location
Bristol • Population of 382,000 • 2005, the council of the Exchequer conferred the title of Science to the City on Bristol, one of only six cities in England to receive this accolade.
Economy • South West- worth 80 billion • Over the last 5 years been the second fastest growing UK region • The region has twice the UK average level of Government expenditure on R and D
Workforce • Access to a 600,000 workforce living within 1 hour's travel of Bristol • 43.5% of Bristol's resident working age population qualified to degree level or above. • Results of Bristol and Bath's Universities' Research Assessment Exercise (2001)
Infrastructure • M4 and M5 • 2 principle railway stations- Bristol Parkway, Bristol Temple Meads • Bristol International Airport • Port-74% of the UK population living within 300 km’s.