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UML Models for DAML Ontologies. OMG Agent SIG 12/11/00 Dr. Paul Kogut and Bill Holmes Lockheed Martin Management & Data Systems Lewis Hart - GRC International. Roadmap. Agents and Ontologies DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) The DAML Program The Origins of DAML UML and DAML projects

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uml models for daml ontologies

UML Models for DAML Ontologies

OMG Agent SIG 12/11/00

Dr. Paul Kogut and Bill Holmes

Lockheed Martin Management & Data Systems

Lewis Hart - GRC International

roadmap
Roadmap
  • Agents and Ontologies
  • DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML)
  • The DAML Program
  • The Origins of DAML
  • UML and DAML
    • projects
    • process example
    • mapping
    • mapping examples
  • Conclusions
slide3

Agents and Ontologies

  • Domain models are used at run-time
    • agents share a context for efficient communication:
      • messages declare an ontology
        • ontology = vocabulary, relations, operations, rules, constraints...
        • example ontology: fruit-market
      • ontology agent - allows application agents to query, retrieve and translate ontologies
      • example agent conversation:
        • (cfp :to i :from j :ontology fruit-market :content (sell plum 50))
        • (propose :to j :from i :ontology fruit-market :content ((sell plum 50 ) (cost 200)))
        • (reject-proposal :to i :from j :ontology fruit-market :content (price-too-high))
slide4

RDBMS

web

pages

other

agents

Agents and Ontologies

learning

personal

assistant

agent

DAML annotated

knowledge

base

information

retrieval

user

interface

natural

language

processing

reasoning

broker

agent

business

software

ontology

agent

slide5

DARPA Agent Markup Language

  • DAML will create the next major generation of Web/Internet technology...
    • The first generation, the Internet, created largely by DARPA, enabled disparate machines to exchange data.
    • The second generation, the World Wide Web, enabled a wide range of new applications on top of the growing Internet. The Web made a huge amount of information available, in human-readable form, allowing a revolution in new applications, environments, and b2c e-commerce.
    • The next generation of the net is an “agent-enabled” resource (the “Semantic Web”) which makes a huge amount of information available in machine-readable form creating a revolution in new applications, environments, and b2b e-commerce.

…by enabling “agent” communication at a Web-wide scale.

from Hendler - DAML briefing - www.daml.org

slide6

DAML Program

  • Main DAML website - www.daml.org
  • Duration: August 2000 to Fall 2002
  • Approach:
    • MIT W3C semantic web concept
      • www.w3.org/2000/Talks/0516-sweb-tbl/all
    • extend XML/RDF:
      • represent ontologies
      • annotate web pages and other information with links to ontologies
slide7

DAML Program

  • 15 research teams and 1 integration team
    • industry, academia and World Wide Web Consortium
    • expertise in AI knowledge representation, logic and web technologies
    • cooperation with European Union IST Program - www.cordis.lu/ist/
  • DAML language definition
  • DAML tools
    • ontology development and verification
    • web page annotation
    • agent services
    • ontology translation
  • DAML trial applications
    • Government: imagery analysis, DoD logistics, DoD simulation
    • Commercial: information retrieval, transportation, financial
slide8

DAML

RDFS

RDF

XML

The Origins of DAML: Web Technologies

  • XML
    • provides syntactic interoperability
    • depends on implicit semantic agreements
  • Resource Description Framework (RDF)
    • designed for representing metadata for web resources with XML syntax
    • triples:
  • RDF Schema
    • adds OO concepts: class and subclass
  • For more information see www.w3.org

<shoeGen:GovermentOrganization rdf:ID="DARPA”/>

<shoeGen:OrganizationHomePage rdf:about="http://www.darpa.mil/">

<shoeProj:authorOrg rdf:resource="#DARPA" />

</shoeGen:OrganizationHomePage>

slide9

The Origins of DAML: AI Technologies

  • SHOE - Simple HTML Ontology Extensions
    • defines ontologies and inference rules in superset of HTML
    • prototype for DAML ideas
    • http://www.cs.umd.edu/projects/plus/SHOE/index.html
  • OIL - Ontology Inference Layer
    • defines ontologies on top of XML and RDF
    • based on description logics
      • research on tradeoffs between expressiveness and computational complexity
    • influenced the semantics of DAML
    • http://www.ontoknowledge.org/oil/
  • DAML design issues:
    • efficient reasoning is important
    • are traditional knowledge representation assumptions violated on the web?
    • should “web logic” be monotonic or nonmonotonic?
slide10

The Origins of DAML: Evolution

  • DAML-ONT v1.2
    • declarative knowledge representation
    • specification and examples released October 2000
      • http://www.daml.org/resources
    • extensive discussions found on:
      • http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-rdf-logic/
    • formal semantics specification:
      • http://www.ksl.stanford.edu/people/dlm/daml-ont-kif-axioms-001129.html
  • DAML-ONT v2.0
    • expected early 2001
  • DAML-L (logic)
    • rule representation and reasoning
    • draft expected early 2001
slide11

UML and DAML: Projects

  • Projects investigating UML DAML issues:
    • UML-based Ontology Toolset (UBOT)
      • UML/XMI tools for DAML ontology development, webpage annotation and formal consistency checking
      • http://ubot.lockheedmartin.com/
    • Components for Ontology Driven Push (CODIP)
      • DAML ontology development and fusion with Rose 2000
      • dissemination of DAML messages via channels
      • http://grcinet.grci.com/maria/www/CodipSite/codip.html
    • Stanford Database Group
      • OntoAgents - http://WWW-DB.Stanford.EDU/OntoAgents/
      • Layered Approach to Information Modeling and Interoperability
        • http://www.interdataworking.com/converter/
      • Representing UML in RDF
        • http://www-db.stanford.edu/~melnik/rdf/uml/
slide12

UML and DAML: Process Example

  • Baseline ontology for business
slide13

UML and DAML: Process Example

  • Extended ontology for e-commerce
slide15

UML and DAML: Process Example

  • Graphical annotation:
    • "Trey Clever is the CEO of the B2B company acronym.com".
uml and daml mapping
UML and DAML: Mapping
  • A UML profile:
    • is a predefined set of stereotypes, taggedvalues, constraints and icons
    • tailors UML for a specific domain or process
  • Draft UML profile for DAML:
    • primary goal - translate class diagrams into DAML ontologies
      • assumption: purpose of model is to design a DAML ontology
    • secondary goal - translate DAML ontologies into class diagrams
    • future goal - translate legacy class diagrams into DAML
    • approach - use UML extensions sparingly
    • status - work in progress
      • not all DAML concepts mapped to UML
    • for more information see:
      • http://ubot.lockheedmartin.com/ubot/details/uml_to_daml.html
      • http://grcinet.grci.com/maria/www/CodipSite/DAML_UML/index.htm
slide17

UML and DAML: Ontologies

  • This model shows dependencies between ontologies.
slide18

UML and DAML: Domain and Range

  • Using explicit navigability and rolenames
    • DAML property: age
      • domain: Person
      • range: Integer
    • DAML property: mother-parent
      • domain: Person
      • range: Woman
slide19

UML and DAML: Domain and Range

  • Using name direction arrow and no rolenames
    • DAML property: age
      • domain: Person
      • range: Integer
    • DAML property: mother
      • domain: Person
      • range: Woman
slide20

UML and DAML: subPropertyOf

  • For simple hierarchy model subPropertyOf as:
    • stereotyped dependency between 2 associations
slide21

UML and DAML: subPropertyOf

  • For complex hierarchy model subPropertyOf as:
    • generalization between stereotyped classes
slide22

UML and DAML: Cardinality

mincardinality

cardinality

maxcardinality

UniqueProperty

UnambiguousProperty

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Graphical modeling of DAML ontologies in UML appears to be a promising approach.
  • Differences in the design goals and origins of UML and DAML complicate the mapping.
  • We recommend that OMG initiate standards efforts related to DAML when the DAML definition stabilizes (~mid 2001):
    • standard UML profile for DAML
      • consistent with UML profile for agents
    • each Domain Task Force should develop standard DAML ontologies