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Review For End of 1 st Semester Final. World Geography. Europe’s Five Peninsulas. Scandinavian - Located in the northernmost part of Europe, includes the countries of Norway, Sweden and Finland Jutland - Located in northern Europe, i ncludes and separates the countries of Denmark and Germany

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europe s five peninsulas
Europe’s Five Peninsulas

Scandinavian- Located in the northernmost part of Europe, includes the countries of Norway, Sweden and Finland

Jutland- Located in northern Europe, includes and separates the countries of Denmark and Germany

Iberian- Located in southeastern Europe, includes the countries of Portugal and Spain

Italian- Located in southern Europe, includes the country of Italy

Balkan- The Balkan Peninsula is a large piece of land in southeastern Europe. It is divided into many countries, including Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Macedonia, Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, and the European part of Turkey

europe s 3 major rivers
Europe’s 3 Major Rivers

Thames-Flows through southern England. It is the longest river in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom. Best known for flowing through London

Danube- A river in Central Europe, the continent’s second longest after the Volga. Originates in the town of Donaueschingen which is in the Black Forest of Germany. The river passes through or touches the borders of ten countries: Romania, Hungary, Serbia, Austria, Germany, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Ukraine, and Moldova.

Rhine- Flows eastern from the Swiss Alps to the North Sea coast in the Netherlands and is the twelfth longest river in Europe. The Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days, the Rhine has been a vital and navigable waterway carrying trade and goods deep inland. It has also served as a defensive feature and has been the basis for regional and international borders.

straits of europe
Straits of Europe

Gibraltar-Spain and Morocco

Bosporus & Dardanelles-Turkey

A strait is a narrow, typically navigable channel of water that connects two larger, navigable bodies of water. It most commonly refers to a channel of water that lies between two land masses, but it may also refer to a navigable channel through a body of water that is otherwise not navigable, for example because it is too shallow, or because it contains an unnavigable reef or archipelago.


A religion and philosophyencompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, who is commonly known as the Buddha (meaning "the awakened one".

The Buddha lived and taught in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE.

He is recognized by Buddhists as an awakened or enlightened teacher who shared his insights to help alert beings end suffering through eliminating ignorance and eliminating craving, thus attaining the highest happiness, nirvāņa.

Eight-fold path: giving up selfish human desires


A monotheistic and religionbased on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in the New Testamentwritings. It also considers the Hebrew Bible, which is known as the Old Testament. Adherents (those who practice the religion) of the Christian faith are known as Christians.

The mainstream Christian belief is that Jesus is the Son of God, fully divine and fully human and the savior of humanity. Because of this, Christians commonly refer to Jesus as Christ or Messiah. Jesus' ministry, sacrificial death, and subsequent resurrection are often referred to as the Gospel, meaning "Good News". The Gospel is news of God the Father's eternal victory over evil, and the promise of salvation and eternal life for all people, through divine grace.

Three largest sects of Christianity is Catholicism, Eastern Orthodox and Protestantism.


A monotheistic and religion expressed by the Qur'an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Arabic: الله‎ Allāh) and by the teachings and examples of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.

Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable and the purpose of existence is to love and serve God. Most Muslims are of two denominations, Sunni or Shia.

5 Pillars of Faith- Testimony, Prayer, Alms, Fasting and Pilgrimage


Hinduism is formed of diverse traditions and has no single founder. It is the predominant spiritual followingof the Indian subcontinent, and one of its indigenous faiths.

Hinduism, with about one billion followers, is the world's third largest religion, after Christianity and Islam.

Teaches its disciples that the principles of life can be discovered through meditation.

There is no holy book, but writings like the Upanishads and the Bhagavad-Gita provide guidance and inspiration.

Beliefs- Karma, reincarnation, sacred Ganges river


A monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, by Guru Nanak. This system of religious philosophy and expression has been traditionally known as the Gurmat (literally 'wisdom of the Gurū'). Punjab, India is the only region in the world with a majority Sikh population.

Sikhi advocates the pursuit of salvation through the practice of meditation on the name and message of God. The followers of Sikhi are ordained to follow the teachings of the ten Sikh gurus, or enlightened leaders, as well as the holy scripture entitled the GurūGranthSāhibJi.

Adherents of Sikhī are known as Sikhs (students or disciples) and number over 30 million across the world.

Sikh men do not cut hair, which is worn in turbans; also have long beards


The religion, philosophy and way of life of the Jewish people.

A monotheistic religion originating in the Hebrew Bible(Torah). Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship God established with the Children of Israel.

Judaism claims a historical continuity spanning more than 3,000 years. Of the major world religions, Judaism is considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions.

major types of government
Major Types of Government
  • Democracy- a form of government in which all eligible citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Democracy allows eligible citizens to participate equally, either directly or indirectly through elected representatives—in the proposal, development, and creation of laws
  • Dictatorship- government is ruled by an individual: a dictator
  • Monarchy- Monarchy was the most common form of government into the 19th century, but it is no longer prevalent. Where it exists, it now often takes the form of constitutional monarchy, in which the monarch retains a unique legal and ceremonial role, but exercises limited or no political power
  • Republic- form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers, and where offices of state are subsequently directly or indirectly elected or appointed rather than inherited; In modern republics such as the United States, France, Russia, and India, the executive is legitimized both by a constitution and by popular suffrage (votes)
  • Theocracy- a form of government in which a deity is officially recognized as the civil Ruler and official policy is governed by officials regarded as divinely guided; In a pure theocracy, the civil leader is believed to have a direct personal connection with God. For example, a prophet like Moses led the Israelites, and the prophet Muhammad ruled the early Muslims. Example: the Pope
essential vocabulary
Essential Vocabulary
  • Balkanization- used to describe the process of fragmentation or division of a region or state into smaller regions or states that are often hostile or non-cooperative with each other (new territories after WW I)
  • Capitalism- economic system that is based on private ownership of capital goods and the means of production, and the creation of goods and services for profit
  • Communism- revolutionary socialist movement to create a classless, moneylessand stateless social order structured upon common ownership of the means of production
  • Demographics- statistical characteristicsof a population. Commonly examined demographics include gender, age, ethnicity. Demographics are very essential about the population of a region and the culture of the people
vocabulary continued
Vocabulary Continued
  • Diffusion- the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages etc.—between individuals, whether within a single culture or from one culture to another; examples of diffusion include the spread of the war chariot and iron smelting in ancient times, and the use of cars and Western business suits in the 20th century.
  • Euro- currency used by the Institutions of the European Union and is the official currency of the eurozone; The euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar
  • Euro zone- Countries part of the EU that have adopted the euro; an economic and monetary union
  • European Union- an economic and political union of 27 member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU operates through a system of supranational independent institutions and intergovernmentalnegotiated decisions by the member states
vocabulary continued1
Vocabulary Continued
  • Genocide- the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic racial, religious, or national group; Example- Holocaust
  • Globalization- process of international integration from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture; Globalization can erode and universalize the characteristics of a local group; Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities.
  • Greenhouse effect- process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions (think about a greenhouse/plants)
  • Imperialism- the creation and/or maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination." It is often considered in a negative light, as merely the exploitation of native people in order to enrich a small handful; Imperialism always involves the massive export of capital to foreign countries for the purpose of exploiting and dominating both their labor forces and their markets. Imperialism, the highest stage of capitalism, represents the stage at which a country's consumers cannot buy all the products that have been produced, and additional markets must be sought after
vocabulary continued2
Vocabulary Continued
  • Maastricht Treaty- formally, the Treaty on European Union or TEU) was signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands; it created the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro
  • Nationalism- form of patriotism based upon the identification of a group of individuals with a nation; extreme; National flags, national anthems, and other symbols of national identity are commonly considered highly important symbols of the national community.
  • Neutrality- where a polity such as a state favors or supports none of the parties involved in a disagreement, conflict or war
  • Patriotism- devotion to one's homeland
vocabulary continued3
Vocabulary Continued
  • Peninsulas- also called a byland; a piece of land that is bordered by water on three sides but connected to mainland (Ex- Florida, Italy)
  • Polders and Dikes- A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by embankments (barriers) known as dikes(land reclaimed)
  • Socialism- an economic system characterized by social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy
vocabulary continued4
Vocabulary Continued
  • Strategic waterways- Bodies of water such as rivers, seas, for the purpose of defense, trade, etc…Example- Rhine River, Gulf of Mexico/Mississippi
  • Supercomputer- a computer at the frontline of current processing capacity, particularly speed of calculation; Supercomputers are used for highly calculation-intensive tasks such as problems including quantum physics, weather forecasting, climate research, oil and gas exploration, molecular modeling (computing the structures and properties of chemical compounds, and physical simulations (such as simulation of airplanes in wind tunnels, simulation of the detonation of nuclear weapons, and research into nuclear fusion).
  • Sustainable development- (SD) refers to a mode of human development in which resource use aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come; Example- solar panels, towers, hydroelectricity
important concepts
Important Concepts

* Every country in Europe has its own language- Most of the languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. This family is divided into a number of branches, including Romance, Germanic, Baltic, Slavic, Albanian, Celtic and Greek.

* Northern European Plain- Breadbasket of Europe; agriculture

the new russian economy
The New Russian Economy
  • Collapse of Soviet Union
  • Communism to incorporating free market principles
  • Oil/petroleum extraction/production
  • World’s largest number of billionaires and millionaires
black death bubonic plague
Black Death (Bubonic Plague)
  • Also known as the “Black Death”
  • Circulating mainly among small rodents and their fleas
  • Swollen lymph nodes (buboes) especially occur in the armpit and groin in persons suffering from bubonic plague
  • Generally believed to be the cause of the Black Deaththat swept through Europe in the 14th century and killed an estimated 25 million people, or 30–60% of the European population.Because the plague killed so many of the working population, wages rose and some historians have seen this as a turning point in European economic development.
relationship between economic development and standard of living
Relationship between Economic Development and Standard of Living
  • Less developed- extremely poor, not industrialized, low HDI (Human Development Index) Ex- Afghanistan, Haiti
  • Newly developed- Advanced economies, but still poor, yet growing economy. Low HDI (Ex- Taiwan, South Korea, Slovakia, Mexico, Brazil)
  • More developed- High GDP, high HDI, industrialized (Ex- US, Japan, Canada, western Europe)
  • The more developed the country, the higher your standard of living
colombian exchange
Colombian Exchange



Indigenous people died of many new diseases

Invasive plants

Tensions between cultures

Slave trade

  • New crops, technologies, ideas
  • Growth in populations
  • Introduction of the horse-Native Americans
demographic relationships that affect development
Demographic Relationships that Affect Development
  • GDP- Gross Domestic Product; the market value of all officially recognized final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living
  • Life expectancy- the expected (in the statistical sense) number of years of life remaining at a given age
  • Literacy rate- the ability to read for knowledge, write coherently, and think critically about the written word. Visual literacy includes in addition the ability to understand all forms of communication, be it body language, pictures, maps, or video
  • Infant morality- occurs when a child dies after birth. Childhood mortality is the death of a child before their fifth birthday; Ninety-nine percent of these infant and childhood deaths occur in developing nations. Infant mortality takes away society’s potential physical, social, and human capital; Generally the most common cause worldwide was dehydration from diarrhea



Labor will be deemed as very low since technologies will be much more utilized.

There is a threat in the business outsourcing industry, one of the highest grossing industries today.

The so called brain drain might continue because skilled people will be generally recruited all over the world to serve the ordering power

  • A more accessible market for anyone all over the world regardless of color, race, and social class.
  • Steady supply of cash to developing countries and even the well established ones.
  • There is an increase in the production capabilities of companies and because of this they now have more freedom to customize their services and products fitted to the needs of the consumers.
  • Political merging will be frequent and a more peaceful and orderly world order will be set.
  • Information and communication will be strengthened not just between two countries but from all countries around the globe
population pyramids
Population Pyramids

Triangular Beehive Rectangular


While all countries' population pyramids differ, four general types have been identified by the fertility and mortality rates of a country.

Stable pyramid- A population pyramid showing an unchanging pattern of fertility and mortality.

Stationary pyramid- A population pyramid typical of countries with low fertility and low mortality, very similar to a constrictive pyramid.

Expansive pyramid- A population pyramid that is very wide at the base, indicating high birth and death rates.

Constrictive pyramid- A population pyramid that comes in at the bottom. The population is generally older on average, as the country has long life expectancy, a low death rate, but also a low birth rate. This pyramid is becoming more common, especially when immigrants are factored out, and is a typical pattern for a very developed country, a high level of education, easy access to and incentive to use birth control, good health care, and few negative environmental factors.

chechnya the chechen conflict
Chechnya: The Chechen Conflict
  • 1st Chechnya War- Chechnya vs Russia
  • 2nd Chechnya War- Chechnya vs Russia (again)
  • Wanting autonomy and to become its own Republic
    • Ethnic tension
    • Regional conflict
    • Considered terrorists by the Russian government
    • Religious differences (most Chechen rebels are Islamists