http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X84AJl5fC7Q Philosophy: Builtenvironment, culture and people Ákos Gyarmathy Dr Béla Kerékgyártó DepartmentforPhilosophy and History of Science
What is the relation of form and function? • Pevsner: Functionality is not indispensable for aesthetic enjoyment. Modern art communicate high aesthetic value without functionality. (independent, standalone art and artist, leave-it-or-take-it attitude). • Raphael and Michelangelo are conceived within architecture (mural paintings). • Titian, Rembrandt or Velasquez are not (easel paintings).
„Very high aesthetic achievements are possible in easel-painting, but they are achievements torn out of the common ground of life.” Pevsner
„Realization is themerging of thought and feeling attheclosest rapport of the mind withthe Psyche, thesurce of what a thingwantsto be. It is thebeginning of Form.” - Kahn
Form and design • „The greatness of the architect depends on his powers of realization of that which is House rather than his design of a house which is a circumstantial act.”
Louis Kahn • Formencompasses a harmony of systems, a sense of Order and thatwhichcharacterizesoneexistencefrom an other.Form has no shapeordimension. • Form is „what”. • Impersonal • Formcharacterizes a harmony of spacesgoodfor a certainactivity of man. • Design is „how”. • Personal • Circumstantial
„House is theabstractcharacteristic of spacesgoodtolivein. House is theform…” • House is a conditionalrepresentation of thesespaces. This is design. • Home is the house and theoccupants. • Home becomesdifferentwitheachoccupant.
„Commoditie” How does the building function? Function, type, institution, style, meaning
Utilitas – firmitas - venustas • Vitruvius I. c. BC. • Architecture must provide • Utility • Firmness • Beauty • Henry Wotten XVII. c. AD. • Commodity • Firmness • Delight
Utility • Arrangement of rooms and spacessothatthere is no hindrancetouse and sothat a buiding is perfectlyadjustedtoits site. (Vitruvius) • Formaltheamount of usefulnessthatsomething has • Definition, function, fitness, essence, form – ancientgreek
Firmness • The foundations are solid • The materials of the building are wisely selected.
Beauty/venustas • The appearance of building pleasing and in good taste. • Proportion, symmetry • Satisfaction and enjoyment.
XXthcenturyInternational Style Walter Gropius (1883-1969) Whereartists and techniciansmeet (1925-26) „A thing is determinedbyitsnature and ifit is to be fashionedsoastoworkproperly, itsessenec must be investigated and fullygrasped. A thing must answeritspurposeineveryway, that is fulfillitsfunctionin a practicalsense and must thus be serviceable, relyable and cheap.”
Form - function • Bauhaus architectsthoughtthatfunctionwas more importantthanform. • What is function? • What is form?
Function • Weneedvariationstodescribedifferentkinds of functionmakingcompoundwordslike • Pragmaticutility • Circulatoryfunction • Symbolicfunction • Psychlogicalfunction
Functionalism • Functionalism is a termwithseveralsenses: • Forfunctionalisminsociology, seeFunctionalism (sociology). • Forstructural-functionalisminanthropology, seestructuralfunctionalism • Forfunctionalisminthephilosophy of mind, seeFunctionalism (philosophy of mind) • Forfunctionalisminarchitecture, seeFunctionalism (architecture). • Forfunctionalisminlinguistics, seeFunctionalgrammar • Forfunctionalisminpoliticalscience, seeFunctionalismininternational relations • Forfunctionalisminpsychology and cognitivescience, seeFunctionalism (psychology) • ForFunctionalisminHolocaustHistory, seeFunctionalism versus Intentionalism
Functionalism (architecture) • Functionalism, in architecture, is the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building. • This statement is less self-evident than it first appears, and is a matter of confusion and controversy within the profession, particularly in regard to modern architecture.
Functionalism • Early examples are the industrial buildings of the German architects Peter Behrens and Martin Gropius.
AEG (General ElectricityCompany) – Hightensionturbinefactory - Peter Behrens (1908-1909) Ludwig Hilberseimer wrote: 'Peter Behrens is led astray by the imperialistic power consciousness of the prewar years and restrained by classical influences, and he thinks to add a facade to his turbine hall of the AEG at Moabit; an otherwise terse structure.... And Erich Mendelsohn criticized the building; 'He pastes over the expression of tension, which the hall creates, with the rigidity of a repeatedly broken temple tympanon.... Le Corbusier, however, admired the structure as being a charged center, 'which represents the integral architectonic creations of our time—rooms with admirable moderation and cleanness, with magnificent machines, which set solemn and impressive accents, as the center of attraction."
For the first time a complete facade is conceived in glassflat roof has also changed. Only in the buildings by Adolf Loos which was done one year before the Fagus Factory, have we seen the same feeling for the pure cube. Another exceedingly important quality of Gropius's building is that, thanks to the large expanses of clear glass, the usual hard separation of exterior and interior is annihilated. —Nikolaus Pevsner, Pioneers of Modern Design
Taut Bruno Taut (1880-1938) Modern Architecture 1929 „The aim of thearchitecture is thecreation of theperfect and therefore most beautifulefficiency.”
Wehave a problem Twoproblems!
Building types and meanings (symbols) As an exampletherearetwobuildingsdesignedbyMies van der Roheforthe campus of Illinois Institue of Technologyduring 1949-52. One is boiler house, theother is thechapel. Yetthere is nothingineithertheformorthematerial of thechapelthattellsushowitsfunctiondiffersfromtheboiler house. Itmay be thatMies van der Rohewasviewingthechapelas an all-purposespace and wishednottocreate a fixed image sothat a newusecould be accommodatedinitlater.
The allpurposespace – universalspace Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969 „We… make a practical and satisfyingshape, andthen fit thefunctionsintoit. Todaythis is theonlypracticalwaytobuild, becausethefunctions of most buildingsarecontinuallychanging, buteconomicallythebuilingcannotchange.” 1952
Le Corbusier (1887-1965) • The new age needs new architecture. • „The house is a machine for living in”
Villa Savoy 5) RoofGarden 4) Long horizontalslidingwindows 3) Free Facade 2) Free/open (floor) Plan 1) the pilotis elevating the mass off the ground
5 points of architecture • the pilotis elevating the mass off the ground • the free plan, achieved through the separation of the load-bearing columns from the walls subdividing the space • the free facade, the corollary of the free plan in the vertical plane • the long horizontal sliding window and finally • the roof garden, restoring, supposedly, the area of ground covered by the house
Five points of new architecture by Le Corbusier • "Pilotis" orcolumnselevatingthe building body offtheground, • The free plan, achievedthroughtheseparation of theload-bearingcolumnsfromthewallssubdividingthespace, • The free façade, thecorollary of free planintheverticalplane, • The longhorizontalslidingwindoworfenêtre en longeur, • The roofgarden, restoring, supposedly, thearea of gardenusedupbythe house.
"Pilotis" or columns elevating the building body off the ground, The free plan, achieved through the separation of the load-bearing columns from the walls subdividing the space, The free façade, the corollary of free plan in the vertical plane, The long horizontal sliding window or fenêtre en longeur, The roof garden, restoring, supposedly, the area of garden used up by the house.
Guaranty Building, Buffalo 1894 • One of thefirstmetal-framedcommercialskyscrapers. • Fourdistinctzones • Basement • Groundflour • The centralsection • The terminatingupperflour. • Massscale, identicalfunction, repetition of theunits Circulatory function