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  1. VIII International PHOENICS Users Conference Luxembourg, May 2000 Dispersion of Contaminants in the Ocean • Authors: • André Luiz Fadel - Mechanical Eng., M. Sc. / Petrobras • João Tornovsky - Chemical Eng. / Chemtech • Flávio Guimarães - Chemical Eng., M. Sc. / Chemtech chemtech

  2. Introduction I • Increasing environmental awareness • Risk assessment • Consequence Analysis • “What-if” analysis • CFD x correlations • Realistic approach chemtech VIII International Phoenics Users Conference

  3. Introduction II • Off-shore oil platforms • Aqueous solution discharge - submerged header • salt water, light oil, heavy oil • high temperature • Impact estimation • Mitigation approach, if needed chemtech VIII International Phoenics Users Conference

  4. Geometry and Grid • flat ocean bed • submerged fraction of the platform disregarded • header  influence in the near field • symmetry plane • power-law grid  far field chemtech VIII International Phoenics Users Conference

  5. Models • Density: influence of composition and temperature • Difusion: • Set as a function of micro-mixing rate (EPKE) • PRNDTL(phi) = - GRND chemtech VIII International Phoenics Users Conference

  6. Models • Sinking and Floating: • Turbulence: stadard k- model • Relaxation: chemtech VIII International Phoenics Users Conference

  7. Boundary Conditions • Stream Profile: • Inlet • Velocity • Temperature • Salinity • Stability condition: stratification / thermocline • Moderate stratification was used • Outlet • Pressure Density chemtech VIII International Phoenics Users Conference

  8. Results I • intermediate condition  intermediate results chemtech VIII International Phoenics Users Conference

  9. C1 C3 C5 Results II • Results agree with qualitative reports from literature • No distinctive behaviour shown due to settling chemtech VIII International Phoenics Users Conference

  10. Conclusions • Reasonable quantitative agreement with experimental data • Good qualitative behaviour • Understanding of plume sensibility to operational and environmental conditions • Results indicate safe operation chemtech VIII International Phoenics Users Conference