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Appendix B. Managing Careers. Managing Your Career. Business is changing rapidly, and jobs and careers are changing with it.

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appendix b

Appendix B

Managing Careers

managing your career
Managing Your Career
  • Business is changing rapidly, and jobs and careers are changing with it.
  • Downsizing, mergers, market and technological changes, new perspectives on the psychological contract, and changing patterns and levels of global competition are creating unprecedented levels of uncertainty, challenge, & opportunity.
  • Individuals are now less inclined to pursue a lifelong career in a single firm.
  • The Labor Department projects that the average person entering the workforce in the U.S. will have 3 1/2 careers and work for 10 employers, keeping each job for only about three and a half years.
  • Employees must prepare themselves for portfolio careers, in which people develop a portfolio of their accomplishments in different companies and “carry” that portfolio with them to help secure new jobs.
the protean career
The Protean Career
  • Proteus was a character in Greek mythology who could change shape in any way he wanted, except when held down.
  • Douglas Hall has drawn on this myth to coin the term Protean Career.
  • According to this view, there is much more to careers than just moving up the hierarchies of organizations.
  • Viewed in this light:
    • a career is an ongoing sequence of events, some of which may have little or nothing to do with money or prestige.
    • a career extends over the entire work life.
    • determining whether a career is successful is up to the individual.
the protean versus the traditional career figure b 1
The Protean Versus the Traditional Career(Figure B-1)

Issue Protean Career Traditional Career

Who’s in Charge? Person Organization

Core Values Freedom; growth Advancement; power

Degree of Mobility High Lower

Important Performance Psychological Position level; salary

Dimensions success

Important Attitude Work satisfaction; Work satisfaction;

Dimensions professional organizational

commitment commitment

the protean versus the traditional career figure b 1 continued
The Protean Versus the Traditional Career(Figure B-1) (Continued)

Issue Protean Career Traditional Career

Important Personality Do I respect Am I respected in this

Dimensions myself? organization?

(self-esteem) (esteem from others)

What do I want to do? What should I do?

(self awareness) (organizational awareness)

Important Adaptability Work-related flexibility; Organization-related

Dimensions current competence; flexibility (measure: (measure: organizational survival)


career problems of young managers



Early Frustration

and Dissatisfaction




and Passivity







Career Problems of Young Managers



loyalty dilemmas
Loyalty Dilemmas
  • One survey asked chief executives what they most value in subordinates. 86% said they valued loyalty first.
  • There are many versions of loyalty:
    • loyalty as obedience
    • loyalty as putting in effort and long hours for the company
    • loyalty as successful completion of tasks
    • loyalty as protecting the superior from ridicule and adverse evaluation by others.
    • loyalty as giving the superior honest information about mistakes and possible failures
  • Unfortunately, young managers often don’t know which version of loyalty is expected.
the career growth cycle figure b 4










The Career-Growth Cycle(Figure B-4)


Initial Job

performance and promotability figure b 5
Performance and PromotabilityFigure B-5


Low High









the career plateau
The Career Plateau
  • The career plateau is the point in a career where the likelihood of further promotions is very low. It often occurs at midcareer.
  • People may plateau because
    • they don’t want any more promotions.
    • of poor performance.
    • there are no openings at higher levels
  • Many plateaued managers apparently can cope with and adapt to the career plateau.
  • Plateauing may cause problems for more than just the plateaued employee, including younger employees who are demoralized.
  • Plateauing may have severe health consequences, including heightened risk of mortality.
moving up and down in and out and around
Moving Up and Down, In and Out,and Around

Movement through the organization can take place in three dimensions, making up the career cone:

  • Vertical. Vertical movement is up and down the organizational hierarchy, such as a promotion or demotion.
  • Radial. Radial career movement includes movement toward or away from the inner circle or the core of the system.
  • Circumferential. Circumferential movement means moving to a different function, program, or product in the organization.
the career cone figure b 6






The Career Cone (Figure B-6)
fitting people to careers


Concept Types




Personality Types

Fitting People to Careers

Person- Career


career anchors
Career Anchors
  • Anchor 1: managerial competence. The career is organized around the competencies and values inherent in the management process.
  • Anchor 2: technical-functional competence. The career is organized around the challenge of the actual work to be done, whether it is related to marketing, financial analysis, corporate planning, or some other area..
  • Anchor 3: security. The individual has an underlying need for security and tries to stabilize the career by tying it to the given organization.
  • Anchor 4: creativity. Individuals with this anchor have a strong need to create something. The anchor is most evident among entrepreneurs.
  • Anchor 5: autonomy and independence. The concern is with freedom and autonomy. Individuals with this anchor often find organizational life too restrictive or intrusive into their personal lives.
occupational personality types
Occupational Personality Types
  • Realistic. Involves aggressive behavior and physical activities requiring skill, strength, and coordination.
  • Investigative. Involves cognitive (thinking, organizing, understanding) rather than affective (feeling, acting, or interpersonal and emotional) activities.
  • Social. Involves interpersonal rather than intellectual or physical activities.
  • Conventional. Involves structural, rule-regulated activities and subordination of personal needs to an organization or person of power and status.
  • Enterprising. Involves verbal activities to influence others and to attain power and status.
  • Artistic. Involves self-expression, artistic creation, expression of emotions, and individualistic activities.
career concept types
Career Concept Types
  • Transitory. There is no clear pattern of career movement. Some transitory types may drift from job to job, while others may be entrepreneurial types.
  • Steady-state. The individual chooses a lifetime occupation. Steady-state types settle into an organization and prefer stability to change.
  • Linear. Career choice is made early, and there is emphasis on steady upward movement on a career ladder.
  • Spiral. There is planned search for increasing self-development and creative growth. The career choice may change accordingly.
guidelines for self management of careers
Guidelines for Self-Management of Careers
  • Develop basic career competencies.
  • Choose an organization carefully.
  • Get a challenging initial job.
  • Be an outstanding performer.
  • Develop professional mobility.
  • Plan your own and your spouse’s careers collaboratively.
  • Get help in career management.
  • Anticipate chance events.
  • Continually reassess your career.
the bottom line managing the career development process

Provide Opportunities

for Employee to

Research and

Explore Various

Career Opportunities

by Sharing

Information and

Holding Ongoing


Work with Employee

to Set Short- and

Long-Term Goals

and an Action Plan

for Achieving


Evaluate Employee’s Progress

Toward Achieving the Goals in

the Action Plan and Modify the

Plan as Needed

Use Appropriate Career

Development Methods, Such as

Job Rotation, Mentoring and

Coaching, to Support the

Implementation of the Career

Development Plan

The Bottom Line: Managing the Career Development Process

Assess Employee

Interests, Skills,

and Abilities

questions asked by at t when screening candidates for overseas transfer fig b 7
Questions Asked by AT&T When Screening Candidates for Overseas Transfer (Fig. B-7)
  • Would your spouse be interrupting a career to accompany you to an international assignment? If so, how do you think this will [affect] your spouse and your relationship with each other?
  • Securing a job on re-entry will be primarily your responsibility. How do you feel about networking and being your own advocate?
  • How able are you in initiating new social contacts?
  • Can you imagine living without television?
  • How important is it for you to spend significant amounts of time with people of your own ethnic, racial, religious, and national background?
  • As you look into your personal history, can you isolate any episodes that indicate a real interest in learning about other people and cultures?
  • Has it been your habit to vacation in foreign countries?
company practices to enhance women s career development figure b 8

Select Part-Time

Job Opportunities


Work Practices

Support for

Training and


Posting of Job








Company Practices to Enhance Women’s Career Development (Figure B-8)

Women’s Career


phases in the mentoring relationship




Phases in the Mentoring Relationship


phases in the mentoring relationship1
Phases in the Mentoring Relationship
  • Initiation. A period of 6 months to a year during which the relationship gets started and begins to take on importance for both individuals.
  • Cultivation. A phase of 2 to 5 years during which the mentor provides many career-related and psychosocial functions. There are frequent interactions and many mutual benefits.
  • Separation. This phase begins when the protégé feels it is time to assert autonomy and independence or when something external to the relationship is marked by significant changes in the functions provided by the mentor relationship and in the affective experiences of the mentor and protégé.
  • Redefinition. If the separation stage has been negotiated successfully, the relationship enters a final, redefinition stage characterized primarily by friendship.
benefits of mentoring for the prot g from figure b 9

Warning of





Exposure and




Benefits of Mentoring for the Protégé(From Figure B-9)


costs of mentoring for the prot g from figure b 9 cont



Risks in Ending


Bad Advice


of Nature of


Lack of

Credit for


Danger if

Mentor “Loses”

Costs of Mentoring for the Protégé(From Figure B-9) (Cont.)


web wise systers
Web Wise: Systers
  • Thousands of women and minorities are now using a new, high-tech approach to mentoring: the personal computer.
  • They seek informal guidance -- virtual mentors -- from online bulletin boards, in-house electronic mail, or websites.
  • Systers began as an electronic mailing list for women and is now a website.
  • There are now more than 2,800 members in 53 countries.
the bottom line the formal mentoring process

Assign Targeted

Employee as a

Protégé to an



Separate the Mentor and

Protégé When Protégé

is Ready for New



Schedule Periodic


Meetings Between

Mentor and Protégé

The Bottom Line: The FormalMentoring Process

Identify an Employee

Who Shows

Potential for Future