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“ Engineering education , international mobility and upward social mobility ”. Gabriel POLONIECKI. Overview. Introduction Social mix in French higher education Engineering studies in France Alternative ways to become an engineer in France International mobility

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slide2

Overview

Introduction

Social mix in French highereducation

Engineering studies in France

Alternative ways to become an engineer in France

International mobility

Concludingremarks

slide3

Introduction

Engineering Education for

SustainableDevelopment and Social Inclusion

Social Mobility

slide4

Social mix in French highereducation

  • Republican model, meritocracy
    • Public and almost free education
    • National final exam atthe end of highschool(Baccalauréat)
    • Public universitieswithoutselective entrance for a lot of fields
    • Almost free prep. Schools and competitiveexamination entrance for schools (Grandes Ecoles)
slide5

Social mix situation in HE in France

  • Some figures
  • Social « lift » ?

Socio-economic class

slide6

Engineering studies in France

  • Prestigiousdegree and title. Well-consideredlevel of French engineers
  • National Accreditation - CTI
  • Independent Schools (most of them), not Faculties. Quitesmall size.
  • A few of Univ. of Technology
  • Veryselective entrance

Commission des Titres d’Ingénieur (Engineertitle commission)

slide7

Eng. studies in France

ENGINEER

Eng. Grad. Sch. 3

5 yrsSch. (5th)

Eng. Grad. Sch. 2

5 yrsSch. (4th)

Eng. Grad. Sch. 1

5 yrsSch. (3rd)

5 yrs. Sch. (2nd)

CPGE2

5 yrs. Sch. (1st)

CPGE1

High School

slide8

Alternative ways to become an Engineer in France

  • Schools point of view(CTI)
  • Excellent results, whyshouldit change ?
  • Absence of upward social mobility : problem for companies and even more for the whole society
  • Companies & Schools Social Responsability
  • France needs more engineers, about 30% more per year (30k to 40k) (CDEFI)

CDEFI : Conférence des Directeurs des Ecoles Françaises d’Ingénieurs

slide9

Alternative ways

  • Lessattractivity on STEM fields
  • Encouraged by National Accreditation Commission (CTI) and Government
  • Need to enlarge the recruitment
  • Also Campus benefits :
    • Social mix,
    • Education background mix,
    • International mix
    • and Gender mix
    • open minds
slide10

Alternative ways

  • Social mix – Upper Social Mobility
    • Traditional « noble pathway » :
  • CPGE + Eng. Grad. Schools
  • 39% of students in Eng Schools
  • But just a few studentsfromlower SEC, why ?
slide11

CPGE characteristics:

    • Excellence in basic sciences
    • Hard work
    • Competitive
    • Absence of degree
    • Uncertainty of the competitiveexamination
  • Studentscharacteristics & perceptions :
    • Most lower SEC students in technologicalpaths
    • Intermediatedegreesrequired
    • Less self-confidence
    • Glass ceilingeffect

Alternative ways

slide12

Some propositions :

  • Promote engineering studies in highschools
  • Alternative pedagogicalmethods(apprenticeship, etc..)
  • Enlargerecruitment in CPGE
    • Create more CPGE, Quota system,
    • Improve links betweenhighschools in lower SEC quarters and CPGE
  • Enlargerecruitmentoutside CPGE
    • Sciences studentsatuniversities
    • International students
    • Graduatesfrom post-secondaryvocationaleducation

Alternative ways

slide13

Post-secondaryVocational Education :

IUT & STS

Labormarket

IUT2

STS2

High Schools

Universities

IUT1

STS1

  • Vocational 2 yrsstudies, internships
  • Deliver « Associatedegrees »
  • High proportion of need-basedgrantholders and studentsbelonging to lower SEC
slide14

Post-secondaryVocational Education :

IUT & STS

Labormarket

Eng. and Bus. School, Master’sdeg.

Bachelor’sdegree

IUT2

STS2

High Schools

Universities

IUT1

STS1

  • Vocational 2 yrsstudies, internships
  • Deliver « Associatedegrees »
  • High proportion of need-basedgrantholders and studentsbelonging to lower SEC
slide15

Alternative ways

ENGINEER

Eng. Grad. Sch. 3

5 yrsSch. (5th)

14%

27%

39%

Eng. Grad. Sch. 2

5 yrsSch. (4th)

Eng. Grad. Sch. 1

5 yrsSch. (3rd)

STS2

5 yrs. Sch. (2nd)

IUT2

L2

CPGE2

STS1

5 yrs. Sch. (1st)

IUT1

L1

CPGE1

High School

slide16

Comments

  • The trend is to continue and to increase the social mix in Engineering Schools.
  • Other propositions are beingtested and one of themisparticularlyencouraged :
  • Apprenticeshippedagogy :
  • Students are hired by companieswheretheywork about half of the time during engineering studies. Theyget a salary, and theirdegree/titleisexactlyequivalent.

Alternative ways

slide17

International Mobility

  • Internationalisation of HE
    • Severaldefinitions, approaches and indicators :
      • Research Collaboration, Research Networks
      • Foreignlanguageteaching and teaching in foreignlanguages
      • Faculty, Staff and Students exchange
      • International placements opportunities
      • International faculty and studentsrecruitment
      • TNE (Transnational Education), Offshoring
      • And more ..
slide18

International Mobility

  • A lot of « good » reasons for internationalising HEI
  • Complexprocess : each country, region and HEI shouldchoosepriorities
  • Hundreds of paperscouldbefound about it
slide19

Internationalisation of engineering education

    • Common withotherfieldsemphasizing in :
      • Research Collaboration, Research Networks
      • International placements opportunities
      • Faculty, Staff and Students exchange
      • Foreignlanguageteaching and teaching in foreignlanguages
      • Employability and/or Researchoriented
slide20

International Mobility

  • Europe :
    • UE initial purposes :
        • Erasmus
        • European dimension in education
        • Qualityimprovement
        • Cooperationbetween institutions
        • Mobility encouragement
      • No social mix purposes
      • No employabilityimprovementpurposes
      • Leonardo da Vinci
      • Improvement of skills (vocational training)
      • Promote innovation
slide21

International Mobility

  • Real Benefits for students :
    • ForeignLanguageProficiency
    • Interculturalunderstanding & competences
    • Knowledge of other countries
    • Academicknowledge
    • Skillsimprovement
    • Employabilityimprovement
    • Self-confidence
slide22

International Mobility

  • Influence on Upward Social Mobility
    • Studiesconfirmthat, for a samelevel of studies, academicresults are almostindependentfrom social origins(Courtiaux,2011)
    • But employabilitystilldepends on social origins (less for engineers) (CEREQ,2010)
    • Reasons :
    • Cultural background, discrimination, foreignlanguageproficiency, less self-confidence, personal network, etc..

CEREQ : Centre d’études et de recherches sur les qualifications

slide23

French figures (BNEI)

    • 34% of students in International Mobilityduringstudies in French Engineering schools (2009)
    • Increasing & becomingcompulsory

BNEI : Bureau National des Elèves-Ingénieurs

slide24

International Mobility

  • FinancingMobility
    • Studiesmobility :
      • Erasmus, Local governmentscholarships, HE Networks
    • Internships international mobility :
      • Erasmus, Local governmentscholarships, HE Networks, Companies
slide25

Concludingremarks

  • A not new problematicsituation waspointed out. It is not usuallyconsidered, but itreflects a kind of social state of a society.
  • Althoughitwas not created on purpose to solvethisproblem, an interesting on-goingexperiencewasintroduced.
  • International mobilityalsocould help to go further in the same direction.
  • Only HE wasconsidered
  • Several actions couldbeimplemented, but thereisstill a long way to go.
slide26

Thanks for your attention

gabriel.poloniecki@gmail.com

slide27

International Mobility

  • Other networks :
    • Engineering schools :
        • TIME, RMEI, FEEIAT, CESAER, CLUSTER, ECIU, ENTREE
        • They let to improve collaborations between HEI, for Education and Researchpurposes, and alsostudents and staff mobility.
slide28

5 years Engineering School

5 yrsSch. (5th)

5 yrsSch. (4th)

5 yrsSch. (3rd)

5 yrs. Sch. (2nd)

5 yrs. Sch. (1st)

  • Studentsadmitedjustafterhighschool
  • No competitiveexamination
slide29

IUT

Labormarket

16-20%

Eng. and Bus. School, Master’sdeg.

50-55%

Bachelor’sdegree

21-23%

IUT(2nd)

IUT(1st)

  • UniversityhostedVocationalschool
  • Deliver « Associatedegrees »
slide30

STS

Labormarket

62%

Eng. and Bus. School, Master’sdeg.

5%

Bachelor’sdegree

20%

STS(2nd)

STS(1st)

  • High SchoolhostedVocationalschool
  • Deliver « Associatedegrees »
slide31

Universities – Bachelor’sdegree

Eng. and Bus. School, Master’sdeg.

Bachelor’sdegree

Bachelor(2nd)

Bachelor(1st)

  • Bachelor’sdegree (threeyrs)
  • DeliverBachelor’s, Master’s & PhD
slide32

CPGE*

Eng. and Bus. School

75%

Bachelor’sdegree

25%

CompetitiveExamination

CPGE(2nd)

CPGE(1st)

  • 2 yrsstudies, highlevel in Basic Sciences
  • No degreedelivered

*Classes Préparatoires aux Grandes Ecoles

slide34

International Mobility

  • Other networks :
    • Engineering schools :
        • TIME (Top Industrial Managers for Europe)
      • RMEI (Réseau Méditerranéen des Ecoles d'Ingénieurs)
      • FEEIAT (Fédération Européenne des Ecoles d’Ingénieurs de l’Automobile et des Transports)
      • CESAEER (Conference of EuropeanSchools for Advanced Engineering Education and Research)
      • CLUSTER (Consortium LinkingUniversities of Science and Technology for Education and Research)
      • ECIU
      • ENTREE