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17 th Century England Power, Money and Religion

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17 th Century England Power, Money and Religion. Divine Right of Kings Secular and Religious Power in the Monarchy Disputes- Monarchy v. Parliament War, Taxes and Religion Demand for More Rights - Petition of Right Power of Religious Strife English Civil War

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17 th century england power money and religion
17th Century EnglandPower, Money and Religion
  • Divine Right of Kings
    • Secular and Religious Power in the Monarchy
    • Disputes- Monarchy v. Parliament
      • War, Taxes and Religion
    • Demand for More Rights - Petition of Right
  • Power of Religious Strife
    • English Civil War
      • Puritans v. Church of England
        • Oliver Cromwell v. King Charles I
          • Roundheads v. Cavaliers
  • Age of Intolerance- Military Dictatorship
    • Oliver Cromwell- Military Dictator
  • Restoration-
    • Protestantism v. Catholicism Part II
    • Demand for more Rights (Writ of Habeas Corpus)
    • Fear of Religion??? (power of Catholicism)
  • Glorious Revolution
    • Power of Parliament v. King
    • English Bill of Rights
james stuart i england 1603 1625
James (Stuart) I (England) 1603-1625
  • Son –Mary, Queen of Scots- King of Scotland (13mo)
  • Protestant (Church of England)
    • Church of England was Very “Catholic”
    • Puritans protested “Catholic Rituals”
      • Remember Puritans were similar in their beliefs to Calvinists
      • Catholics protested too! Guy Fawkes-Tried to blow up Parliament
  • Rose to the throne on the Death of Elizabeth, who was childless
  • Argued with Parliament - Hated to ask Parliament for Money for Wars (he felt above that type of thing)
  • Major Accomplishment- King James Bible
    • Written in English, it is the dominant English language Bible to this day
    • Authorized Jamestown Company and Massachusetts Bay
charles i stuart 1625 1649 tried and beheaded
Charles I (Stuart) 1625- 1649 (Tried and Beheaded)
  • Son of James I
  • Saw himself as placed on earth to be King by God
  • Married a Roman Catholic- Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV of France- Maryland was named for her.
  • Problems led to laws limiting the Kings rights
    • Dispute caused the English Civil War (1642-1649)
  • Charles Tried and Executed 1649- Family escaped to France
charles and parliament fight
Charles and Parliament Fight!
  • Charles fought Wars with Spain and France
    • Wars Cost the Government LOTS of money- (Iraq has cost the US over 500 Billion Dollars !!!!)
  • How does Government pay for Wars!!! Taxes!
  • Charles thought he was too BIG for Parliament but needed Parliament for $$$ (to authorize taxes)
  • Parliament struck a deal with Charles-
    • They’d give him Money if he protected their rights Petition of Right
  • Afterward Charles made sure Parliament didn’t meet for the next 11 years (1629-1640)
petition of right ideas that later became part of the us constitution
Petition of RightIdeas that later became part of the US Constitution
  • The King May Not
    • Imprison people without due Cause (6th Amend. US Const.)
    • No taxation without Representation (Decl. of Indep.)
    • No Quartering of Troops in Houses (3rd Amend. US Const.)
    • No Martial Law in Peacetime (US Constitution)
william laud archbishop
William Laud- Archbishop
  • Protestant
  • Chose by Charles I (1639)
  • Liked Catholic Rituals and Dress
  • Upset Scottish Presbyterians
charles fought with puritans and presbyterians
Charles fought with Puritans and Presbyterians
  • Puritans- Puritans sought to PURIfy the Church of England of anything that seemed Roman Catholic
  • Charles alienated(upset) Puritans by picking William Laud (Archbishop)
  • Upset Scots- Presbyterians- demanded they follow the Church of England’s rituals
english civil war 1642 1649
English Civil War1642-1649
  • Cromwell’s New Model Army v. King’s Forces
  • 100s of Thousands Died
  • Cromwell later alienated Parliament-
    • Military Control despite Parliament’s Protest
  • Puritans majority of Cromwell’s Army
  • Nobles and Church Officials majority of Kings Army
  • Charles I- Tried and Executed
  • Cromwell Wins!
cavaliers and roundheads
Cavaliers and Roundheads
  • Cavaliers- Kings Forces
  • Roundheads (due to their Haircuts (similar to Jim Carey in “dumb and dumber)
thomas hobbes political writer and philosophe
Thomas HobbesPolitical Writer and Philosophe
  • 1651 Wrote Leviathan (political book)
    • Leaders are given Power by the People (Social Contract)
      • Therefore, Leaders need to be incredibly Powerful
      • If two people, individually go out to hunt a deer, they are more likely to kill each other than work together to capture a deer
    • Hobbes saw people at their worst- He lived in a very bloody and murderous time (English Civil War)
      • He saw little cooperation and lots of competition amongst people

Leviathan- Sea Monster

All Powerful Monarch

oliver cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
  • Puritan
  • Led the New Model Army
  • Fought Charles I
  • Disrespected Parliament
  • Became Military Dictator- LORD PROTECTOR
cromwell ran a strict ship
Cromwell ran a strict ship
  • Ran a Strict Govt.
    • Believed in Religious Liberty (people can choose their religion)
      • Allowed Jews to return to England (thrown out in the 13th Century)
      • People could practice various religions.
    • Raised Taxes w/out Parliament
    • Disbanded Parliament, created his own government
    • Imprisoned people w/out Trial
    • Fought and defeated Irish Catholics in Ireland
    • Strict social laws in London (no dancing, theatre etc…)
    • His Son, Richard, took over the Throne on Oliver’s death
richard cromwell
Richard Cromwell
  • 1658 -Took over from his Father, Oliver
  • Lord Protector
  • Unable to effectively rule- Parliament forced him out (1660)
charles ii 1660 1685 and the restoration interregnum between the kings
Charles II (1660-1685)andthe Restoration - Interregnum (Between the Kings)
  • Charles I family had fled to Catholic France
  • Charles II and his brother James were raised in France
    • They secretly agreed to become Catholic (deal with French King, Louis XIV (14) who was secretly giving him money)
  • Parliament brought back Charles II and restored his family to the Throne- Restoration
charles ii as a ruler
Charles II as a Ruler
  • Reasonable ruler, sought to give more religious liberty
    • Upset Parliament, that didn’t like Catholicism
  • Arts flourished- Drama and Comedy, John Milton wrote Paradise Lost
  • Law providing for Habeas Corpus (see US Constitution) Passed by Parliament
    • People could no longer be placed in Jail and not given a trial
  • Charles dies w/out an heir (childless)- always a problem
james ii 1685 1688
James II (1685-1688)
  • Brother of Charles II
  • Supporters of James II called Tories
  • Opponents of James II called Whigs
  • Whigs and Tories combine to oust James II from power
  • His 1st daughter, Mary, (Protestant) living in the Netherlands with her husband, William, is brought over to rule. (William and Mary, the school in Va. Is named for them.)

(what American city was named for James II??? Hint: Before he was James II he was the Duke of __ ___ ___ ___). Because there was already a city with the same name in England this American city’s name begins with the word “New”)

a catholic on the throne is dangerous
A Catholic on the Throne is Dangerous!
  • James was Catholic, but when made King his oldest child was Protestant
  • Has another child (a son) while King- This Child is Catholic
    • Causes Fear that Catholicism will be restored
  • James appointed Catholics to high office- Upset Parliament
  • Like Charles I he suspends Parliament from meeting-> Demands for James removal
glorious revolution 1688
  • Little Bloodshed during the removal of James II
    • Main bloodshed is in Ireland- where Irish Catholics are overwhelmingly defeated.
  • William and Mary- will have less power than James II and his brother Charles II John Locke writes the English Bill of Rights. This places more limits on the power of the King and Queen
  • Winners – Parliament and Protestantism
  • Losers- Monarchy, Catholicism, Irish and James II
john locke political writer and philosophe
John Locke Political Writer and Philosophe
  • Optimistic about Man and Society
    • In his life he experienced a revolution where few people died.
    • Society did not need an Absolute Monarch, the best government is a limited Government.
  • Essays on Government (1690)
    • Government is subject to the People (Social Contract)
    • People have Natural Rights- Include Life and Liberty
    • Government should protect Life, Liberty and Property
    • Power of Government should be LIMITED
    • Revolution is justified if Government fails to properly Govern
  • Wrote the English Bill of Rights (also called the Declaration of Rights)
english bill of rights 1688 declaration of rights
English (Bill of Rights) 1688Declaration of Rights
  • King can’t suspend the laws of Parliament (see Declaration of Independence)
  • Parliament had to meet frequently (US Constitution)
  • Elections should be free and fair (US Constitution)
  • Debates in parliament should be subject to freedom of speech (US Constitution
  • No Taxes without approval of Parliament (see US Constitution)
  • No Standing Army without approval of Parliament (See US Constitution)
  • No excessive Bail (see US 8th Amendment)

(These and other laws provide the foundation for the US

Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution)

tower of london where the kings and queens lived

Tower of London-Where the Kings and Queens lived

Today, the crown jewels are kept there

Globe Theatre (original burned down in the Great Fire of 1666) This is where Shakespeare’s plays were performed.

John Milton

Paradise Lost

  • One of the most famous books in English History.
  • Why man must endure such suffering and pain
one of mr balazs favourite spots in london
One of Mr. Balazs’ favourite spots in London
  • The most famous crosswalk in the World!!! (note the people on the walkway are not famous, but 4 others who walked on it in 1969 are)