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Design/Drafting Basics. Invention and Innovation Unit Two Technological Design Expression and Communication. 5-16-06 Tom Weber.

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design drafting basics

Design/Drafting Basics

Invention and Innovation

Unit Two

Technological Design Expression and Communication


Tom Weber

This material is based upon work supported by the national science foundation under Grant No. 0402616. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF).

why sketching and drafting
Why Sketching and Drafting?
  • It is a means of graphically expressing an idea or solution to a problem.
  • A drawing can communicate extreme precision and detail giving the reader or customer a good idea of what you want to make or construct.
content for this unit
Content for this Unit
  • Drafting Conventions
  • Basic concepts of Image Representation
  • Sketching
  • Computer Assisted Design Software
  • Communicating the Design Proposal
drafting conventions
Drafting Conventions
  • Line Weight – Different line weights of thickness communicate different meanings.
  • All lettering should be positioned so as to be read from the bottom of the drawing.
  • Most dimension should be in the front view.
  • Extension lines should not touch the


  • Centerlines touch and extend past the drawing
orthographic projection
Orthographic Projection
  • This method of drawing takes any object and breaks it down into each of it six side.
  • Imagine an object placed into a clear cube so you can isolate one of the sides at a time.
  • By tradition the front, top and right side are used. This would allow you get the information you need to draw the object.
orthographic example
Orthographic example

In looking at the three views of the music player you can see all of the major features of the object. The front view is the view which has the most information about the object.


isometric projection
Isometric Projection
  • Isometric drawing is drawn around three lines, or an isometric axis.
  • The three lines are similar to the edges of a cube.
  • The two base lines are drawn at an angle of 30 degrees.
isometric example
Isometric example

This drawing type

is quick to draw

and helps the

designer explain

easier what the object

looks like. You can also dimension this

to give the reader more information about the object.

perspective drawings
Perspective drawings
  • The most accurate methods' of drawing.
  • The object gets smaller the farther away it is.
  • The artist/draftsperson is free to choose 1,2 or 3 vanishing points on the horizon.
examples one point
Examples: One point

One point perspective

  • Sketching using isometric sketching paper allows the drafter/artist to sketch easier using a background pattern to help draw the object.

Brazos Best

sketching example
Sketching example
  • Drawing freehand on the grid paper.
  • Front, top and side views are shown.
computer assisted design
Computer Assisted Design
  • Drafting or drawing using Computer hardware and Software.
  • Macintosh or Windows Platform
  • Often called Cad or Cadd
  • Two- Dimensional Software- Ex. Macdraft, Autosketch, Cadkey
  • Three-Dimensional Software – Ex. Prodesktop, Rhino, Solidworks
advantages of cad
Advantages of Cad
  • Some programs are easy for students to use.
  • Cross-Platform – PC’s and Macs
  • Cost –Very Expensive to Free
  • Easy to change a part of the design at anytime.
  • Can be easy to learn.


communicating the design process
Communicating the Design Process
  • Showing a PowerPoint of the idea.
  • Display of the model.
  • Display item such as price, materials, inpact on the environment, lifestyle changes.
  • It simulates the sale to the customer.
standards and benchmarks
Standards and Benchmarks
  • • Standard 8: Students will develop an understanding of the attributes of design.o [8.E] Design is a creative planning process that leads to useful products and systems.• Standard 11: Students will develop abilities to apply the design process.o [11.H Apply a design process to solve problems in and beyond the laboratory-classroom.o [11.J] Make two-dimensional and three-dimensional representations of the designed solution.• Standard 17: Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use information and communication technologies.o [17.K] The use of symbols, measurements, and drawings promotes clear communication by providing a common language to express ideas.