Scholarship, Teaching Excellence and the UKPSF Steve Outram, HEA 2011 UKPSF 2011
Outline of the session • What is the Higher Education Academy? • Priorities for CBHE • Scholarship & Research • Teaching Excellence • UKPSF • Any Questions?
The HEA and College-based HE( HE in FE) Thinking strategically about college-based HE and student learning experiences within the new context of changing transactional, transformational and competitive relationships
Scholarship and Research • History of workshops • Development of resources • New inquiry with LSIS, MEG and AoC • Literature review • Tutors and scholarly activity • Scholarship and research in the curriculum
What is Scholarship? • The meaning of scholarship • Models of scholarship – Boyer • Discovery • Application • Integration • Scholarship of Teaching and Learning • Scholarship in the curriculum
QAA Model of scholarship - Students • Qualification descriptors in the Quality Code explain the outcomes and attributes expected of learning at higher education levels 5, 6 and 7 (full details in the Annex). These descriptors provide a helpful starting point in determining the staffing implications for different degree levels. • The Quality Code states that holders of level 5 qualifications: • will have developed a sound understanding of the principles in their field of study, and will have learned to apply those principles more widely...they will have learned to evaluate the appropriateness of different approaches to solving problems…Their studies may well have had a vocational orientation...enabling them to perform effectively in their chosen field. Holders of qualifications at this level will have the qualities necessary for employment in situations requiring the exercise of personal responsibility and decision-making.
Holders of a level 6 qualification are expected to: • have developed an understanding of a complex body of knowledge, some of it at the current boundaries of an academic discipline...the holder will have developed analytical techniques and problem-solving skills that can be applied in many types of employment...[and] will be able to evaluate evidence, arguments and assumptions, to reach sound judgements and to communicate them effectively. • They are also expected to: • have the qualities needed for employment in situations requiring the exercise of personal responsibility, and decision-making in complex and unpredictable circumstances.
With regard to level 7 awards, much of the study undertaken is expected to… ….have been at, or informed by, the forefront of an academic or professional discipline. Students will have shown originality in the application of knowledge…they will understand how the boundaries of knowledge are advanced through research. They will be able to deal with complex issues both systematically and creatively…they will show originality in tackling and solving problems…[and] have the qualities needed for employment in circumstances
QAA Model of scholarship - Staff • applicants (for degree awarding powers) are required to demonstrate (a) that their staff have knowledge and understanding of research and advanced scholarship in a discipline (for taught degree-awarding powers), and knowledge and understanding of current scholarly developments in a discipline (for Foundation Degree-awarding powers); and (b) that this knowledge and understanding directly inform and enhance teaching. In thinking about how they can provide the demonstrable evidence required, • applicants may find it helpful to consider how their own review of teaching and learning, including observation of classes and possibly independent external verification of the evidence, might be used in support of an application.
Embedding scholarship in the curriculum • Developing research-based curricula in college-based higher education • Mick Healey, Alan Jenkins and John Lea • February 2014
Main points • Diversity of provision • The Humboldtian conception of the university – the unity of research & teaching • - the Newman conception of the university • What is your conception of HE?
Working with students • students as scholars’ (Miami, Ohio, USA) • inquiry based learning’ (McMaster, Canada), • student as producer’ (Lincoln, UK), • students as change agents’ (Exeter, UK), • research based teaching and learning’ (Zurich, Switzerland) • students as engaged scholars in the community’ (Bates College, USA)
Integrating research into the curriculum • Research-led: Learning about current research in the discipline. Here the curriculum focus is to ensure that what students learn clearly reflects current and ongoing research in their discipline. This may include research done by staff teaching them.
Research-oriented: Developing research skills and techniques. Here the focus is on developing students’ knowledge of and ability to carry out the research methodologies and methods appropriate to their discipline(s).
Research-based: Undertaking research and inquiry. Here the curriculum focus is on ensuring that as much as possible the student learns in research and or inquiry mode (i.e. the students become producers of knowledge not just consumers). The strongest curricula form of this is in those special undergraduate programmes for selected students, but such research and inquiry may also be mainstreamed for all or many students.
Research-tutored: Engaging in research discussions. Here the focus is on students and staff critically discussing research in the discipline as, for example, in many seminar-based courses.
Year One students • Create a strong opening activity that involves students doing guided research • Help students to read academic literature critically • Involve library and other learning support staff • Demonstrate how research mindedness can support future employability • Guide students into the nature of research in their discipline(s) • Provide opportunities for students to make their research public • Recognise that students will find such work challenging • Ensure how the students are assessed supports research mindedness • Involve upper level students in supporting student research in year one
Final Year Students • Characteristics of a final-year project or dissertation • It should: • be an extended piece of work • be research or inquiry-based • be relevant to a discipline or take an inter-disciplinary approach • be underpinned by a range of relevant sources • be contextualised and show recognition of the provisional nature of knowledge • incorporate an element of critical thinking, challenge and evaluation • be clear what it is contributing • have a clearly defined and justified methodology • build up to its conclusions and where appropriate have an element of reflective commentary, including recommendations • communicate the research outcomes appropriately and effectively. • Source: Healey et al. (2013, 28-29)
Thinking Strategically Applicants should ask themselves the following questions: • What is our strategy for ensuring the development and maintenance of 'a well-founded, cohesive and self-critical academic community that can demonstrate firm guardianship of its standards'? • How is this expressed in our strategic mission or vision? • Who is responsible for this strategy and to what extent is it devolved through the organisation? • What is our strategy for addressing the expectations referred to in this guidance, as appropriate to our application?
What is the balance between full and part-time staff supporting higher education at levels 5, 6 and 7, and what implications does this have for the organisation? • How inclusive is the academic community? • What use is made of external partners in developing our academic community? • Are members of staff involved in research networks? • What qualifications do we expect staff to have? • What targets and aspirations have we set for ourselves with regard to the qualifications held by staff? • Is there a clear organisation-wide view of what constitutes scholarship and
What criteria do we use to define scholarship and scholarly activity - for example, the level of participation, the outputs of scholarship, the extent of dissemination internally and externally? • Do we differentiate between scholarly activity and continuing professional development? • Are scholarly activity and its outputs audited and subject to external verification? • What are the mechanisms for planning and allocating resources for scholarly activity to individuals and schools/departments?
Strategies for engaging students with research and inquiry within courses and programmes • Strategy 1: Develop students’ understanding of the role of research and inquiry in their discipline • Develop the curriculum to bring out current or previous research developments in the discipline • Develop students’ awareness of the nature of research and knowledge creation in their discipline.
Strategy 2: Develop students’ abilities to carry out research • Students learn in ways that mirror research processes • Assess students in ways that mirror research processes (eg requiring students to have their work assessed by peers according to the house-style of a journal before submitting it to you) • Provide training in relevant research skills and knowledge • Ensure students experience courses that require them to do research projects; and that there is a progressive move to projects of greater scale, complexity and uncertainty (Strategy 3) • Develop student involvement in research • Develop abilities of students to communicate the results of their research in ways that are appropriate to the disciplinary community in which they are now participating • While developing the research mindedness of all students, perhaps provide stronger research opportunities for selected students.
Strategy 3: Progressively develop students’ understanding • Ensure that introductory courses induct students into the role of research in their discipline and present knowledge as created, uncertain and contested • Ensure that advanced courses develop students’ understanding of research, and progressively develop their capacities to do research • Ensure that graduating year (capstone courses) require students to carry out a major research study and help them to integrate their understanding of the role of research in their discipline
Strategy 4: Manage students’ experience of research • Evaluate students’ experience of research and feed that back into the curriculum • Support students in making clear to them the employability elements of research; this is particularly important for those students whose focus is on using a degree to get employment, and who may not otherwise appreciate the value of a research-based approach. • Source: Based on Jenkins et al. (2003, 63-4) and Healey and Jenkins (2006, 49)
What are the implications for.. • Your programme? • Your module? • Your students? • YouYour institution?
Thank You • Any questions?
To find out more • Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate – Ernest Boyer 1990 • QAA - Guidance on scholarship and the pedagogical effectiveness of staff: Expectations for Foundation Degree-awarding powers and for taught degree-awarding powers; see http://www.qaa.ac.uk/Publications/InformationAndGuidance/Pages/guidance-FDAP-TDAP.aspx • The Challenge to Scholarship: Rethinking learning, teaching and research Gill Nicholls, 2005
Objectives To explore excellence in teaching and learning and in particular what this means in a college based higher education context To explore excellence in teaching and learning with a specific focus on the disciplines To enable college based higher education staff to share their experiences with other institutions.
HEA current research Teaching excellence – literature review University of Glasgow Teaching excellence benchmarking activity with Australia
What does excellent teaching in college higher education look like? What does excellent teaching in HE look like generally? The Review by CHERI The National Teaching Fellowship Scheme OFSTED An example of an HEI internal fellowship scheme
CHERI Excellence in teaching and learning: a review of the literature for the Higher Education Academy Brenda Little, William Locke, Jan Parker and John Richardson Centre for Higher Education Research and Information The Open University July 2007
Summary Teaching excellence is situational …with implications for college-based HE
18. At a practical level, three specific implications arise from the review: dialogues between different stakeholders about what constitutes excellent teaching and excellIn a higher education system that continues to be steered towards meeting the needs of the economy while at the same time nurturing conditions that will create a more inclusive society, it is likely that higher education will increasingly be engaging with curricula based in or derived from individuals‟ workplace experiences and professional practices as well as drawing on a range of discipline-based knowledge. As such, there will need to be ent learning beyond the acquisition of excellent discipline-based knowledge.
A more comprehensive approach to the management of student learning processes and dimensions of learning provision could usefully broaden the debate to include academic-related and support staff and their roles in supporting institutional drives towards enhancing the quality of students‟ learning experiences. A more holistic view of the student-learning environment needs to be employed in trying to develop more sophisticated understandings of student learning and of what might constitute excellence in learning from students‟ perspectives.
National Teaching Fellowship Scheme • Criterion 1 • Individual excellence: evidence of enhancing and transforming the student learning experience commensurate with the individual’s context and the opportunities afforded by it. • This may, for example, be demonstrated by providing evidence of: • stimulating students’ curiosity and interest in ways which inspire a commitment to learning, • organising and presenting high quality resources in accessible, coherent and imaginative ways which in turn clearly enhance students’ learning, • recognising and actively supporting the full diversity of student learning needs, • drawing upon the results of relevant research, scholarship and professional practice in ways which add value to teaching and students’ learning, • engaging with and contributing to the established literature or to the nominee’s own evidence base for teaching and learning.
Criterion 2Raising the profile of excellence: evidence of supporting colleagues and influencing support for student learning; demonstrating impact and engagement beyond the nominee’s immediate academic or professional role. • This may, for example, be demonstrated by providing evidence of: • making outstanding contributions to colleagues’ professional development in relation to promoting and enhancing student learning, • contributing to departmental/faculty/institutional/national initiatives to facilitate student learning, • contributing to and/or supporting meaningful and positive change with respect to pedagogic practice, policy and/or procedure.
Criterion 3Developing excellence: evidence of the nominee’s commitment to her/his ongoing professional development with regard to teaching and learning and/or learning support. • This may, for example, be demonstrated by providing evidence of: • on-going review and enhancement of individual professional practice, • engaging in professional development activities which enhance the nominee’s expertise in teaching and learning support, • engaging in the review and enhancement of one’s own professional and/or academic practice, • specific contributions to significant improvements in the student learning experience.
OFSTED • Student progress and attitude • Teacher Subject Knowledge, confidence and style • Teacher challenge and expectations • Student independence and collaboration • Relationships • Assessment • Resources
Internal Fellowship Schemes - Leicester Individual excellence 1. Evidence of promoting and enhancing the student learning experience by: a) arousing curiosity to stimulate and inspire learning b) organising and presenting resources cogently and imaginatively c) recognising and supporting diversity of student learning needs d) drawing upon the results of relevant research, scholarship and professional practice, including from the established literature or your own evidence base.
Raising the profile of excellence 2. Evidence of supporting colleagues and influencing support for student learning in (and if appropriate beyond) your institution, through demonstrating impact and engagement beyond your immediate academic or professional role by: a) contributing to the development of colleagues to promote student learning b) contributing to departmental/college/institutional/national initiatives to facilitate student learning.
Developing excellence 3. Commitment to your ongoing professional development with regard to teaching and learning (and/or learning support) by: a) ongoing review and enhancement of individual practice, including professional development activities b) evidence of improvements to the student learning experience resulting from engagement in review and enhancement of individual practice.
Elements to address in developing an excellent student experience • approaches to teaching; • scholarship; • curriculum development
Introducing the UKPSF 2011 UKPSF 2011
Purpose • Explore the UKPSF and its uses for: • Recognition and accreditation • Organisational development • Individual professional development
Who does the Framework belong to? • Developed by the Academy • On behalf of the sector • It is the property of all those with a direct interest in the Higher Education sector
What is the UKPSF? • Describes the professional role of ‘teaching and supporting learning’ in HE … • Practitioner perspective … • Expressed as Dimensions - used to construct… • Four Descriptors comprehensively covering teaching and learning support roles within HE.