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Where Do All the Proteins Go?. Eukaryotic Cell Structures pages 173-183. Where Do All the Proteins Go?. Proteins are assembled at ribosomes, but then what? Most proteins must be modified before they work properly Animation – protein folding

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where do all the proteins go

Where Do All the Proteins Go?

Eukaryotic Cell Structures

pages 173-183

where do all the proteins go1
Where Do All the Proteins Go?
  • Proteins are assembled at ribosomes, but then what?
  • Most proteins must be modified before they work properly
    • Animation – protein folding
  • Several cell organelles help modify & transport the proteins to their final destinations
    • Animation – overview
the nucleus
The Nucleus
  • Chromosomes – genetic info inside nucleus
    • Made of DNA & proteins
  • Nucleolus – dark spot in the nucleus
    • Where ribosomes are assembled
  • Nuclear envelope – membrane around nucleus
    • Nuclear pores – holes in nuclear envelope that allow RNA to exit the nucleus
slide4

Nucleolus

Cell

Membrane

Nucleus

Nuclear

envelope

Animal Cell

protein synthesis
Protein Synthesis
  • Ribosome – where proteins are assembled
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) – series of membranes attached to the nucleus
    • Rough ER (RER) – Has ribosomes attached to it
      • Proteins are released inside after being made
      • Folds & modifies the proteins
    • Smooth ER (SER) – No ribosomes attached
      • Lipid synthesis
  • Animation – overview
slide6

Ribosome

(attached)

Ribosome

(free)

Smooth

endoplasmic

reticulum

Rough

endoplasmic

reticulum

Animal Cell

protein synthesis continued
Protein Synthesis – continued
  • Vesicle – “bubble” surrounded by a membrane
    • Transports proteins & other substances around the cell
  • Golgi Apparatus – stacks of membranes near the ER
    • Modifies the protein before it is sent to its final destination
  • Animation – vesicle transport
slide8

Ribosome

(attached)

Ribosome

(free)

Smooth

endoplasmic

reticulum

Rough

endoplasmic

reticulum

Golgi apparatus

Animal Cell

final destinations of proteins
Final Destinations of proteins?
  • Cytoplasm
  • Lysosomes– lipid membrane with enzymes (proteins) inside
    • Breaks down materials in the cell (recycler)
  • Outside the cell – vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release proteins (exocytosis)
  • Cell membrane -protein channels & glycoproteins
  • Cytoskeleton- microfilaments & microtubules (protein structures)
    • Helps maintain cell’s shape and involved in cell movement.

Animation – final destinations

review
Review
  • Which organelle packages proteins for their final destination?
  • Which organelle is where ribosomes are made?
  • Which organelle is full of enzymes?
  • Which organelle is where proteins are assembled?
  • Which TWO organelles modify proteins?
  • Which organelle is where lipids are made?
  • Which organelle transports proteins around the cell?