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Chapter 18. Background to the Conflict Pre-Civil War Days. Differences Divide North and South. Regional Differences North More factories People began moving to the cities to work Less people were farming People from other countries moved to the North

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chapter 18

Chapter 18.

Background to the Conflict

Pre-Civil War Days

differences divide north and south
Differences Divide North and South

Regional Differences


More factories

People began moving to the cities to work

Less people were farming

People from other countries moved to the North

Population grew rapidly to over 19 million PEOPLE!!!

plantation life
Plantation Life
  • Huge plantations
    • Needed a lot of workers
    • Used slave labor
the south
The South

Farming remained the main way to earn a living

Most were small one family farms

Cut lumber, raised cattle, and raised just enough food for their own families

Population was a lot smaller (11 million) than in the North (19 million)

the slave economy
The Slave Economy

Many people began to turn against slavery

Cost of owning slaves was too high for most

Most slaves worked on large plantations.

Very few white Southerners could afford to own slaves.


Why was slavery an accepted institution in the south even if they knew it was wrong????

king cotton
“King Cotton”

Cotton was hard to prepare for market

The little seeds had to be separated from the cotton.

This was very hard to do and took a LOT of TIME

Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin

Made cleaning cotton easier

Farmers grew more cotton and made more money

Needed more slaves to work the cotton

north and south disagree
North and South Disagree

States’ Rights

South didn’t like depending on the North’s manufactured goods

Thought the North was getting RICH off of them

slavery issue
Slavery Issue


Settlers from the South who moved west took their slaves

Settlers from the North didn’t own slaves and thought slavery was wrong.

WHO would WIN Would there be slavery in the new territories or NOT???

lesson 2 africans in slavery and freedom
Lesson 2. Africans in Slavery and Freedom

Life Under Slavery

Slave Codes

Laws for slaves

Slaves could not leave owners’ land

Could not buy or sell goods

Not allowed to learn to read or write

Treated as property with very few privileges

coping with slavery
Coping with Slavery


Formed close knit groups to help each other

Sang religious songs to give them strength


Hired to watch the slaves work and punish them if they fell behind.

fighting back
Fighting Back

Fighting Back

Most resisted slavery ( act against)

Quiet ways they resisted

Broke tools, left gates open to let the farm animals out, let boats drift away, hid stuff the owners needed and acted like they knew nothing about it at all

john brown s rebellion
John Brown’s Rebellion

John Brown’s rebellion at Harper’s Ferry

A white abolitionist

Stole guns from Harper’s Ferry warehouse to give to slaves

Caught, tried, and hanged

violent resistance
Violent Resistance

Violent ways to resist

Nat Turner’s Revolt

Led an attack killing 57 people

He and others were caught, tried in court, and hanged

running away
Running Away

Running Away

Many chose to run away

Found safe places to hide

Indians protected some

Hid in forest, swamps, and mountains

Some made it to the free North, some to Canada and others went south to Mexico

Many were helped by the Underground Railroad

Many were caught and punished for trying to escape.

the underground railroad
The Underground Railroad

System of escape routes leading to freedom

Members were called conductors

Hiding places were called stations

Harriet Tubman was most famous

An escaped slave

Returned to the South over 20 times to help others

free africans
Free Africans

Not all Africans were slaves

Some were former slaves freed by their owners

Others had bought their freedom

Some had escaped to freedom

Many lived in the cities where they had a better chance to work

life for africans
Life for Africans…

Life for most Africans, free or not, was still hard because:

Unwelcome in many places

Often treated unfairly

Had little freedom

Not allowed to vote or meet in groups

Could not attend school or have certain jobs

Whites Only

lesson 3

Slave State?

Free State?


Lesson 3

Facing a

National Problem

new compromises
New Compromises
  • Henry Clay
    • Worked hard to settle differences dividing the nation.
    • Congressman from Kentucky
    • Free state: didn’t want slavery.
    • Slave state: wanted slavery
    • Everything was EVEN until Missouri became a state.
the missouri compromise
The Missouri Compromise
  • Asked to join the U.S. as a slave state
  • This would make more slave states than free.
  • Missouri would join as a slave state AND Maine would join as a free state.
  • Imaginary line would be drawn through the rest of the Louisiana territory
solutions to the problem
Solutions to the Problem
  • North of the line = Free States
  • South of the line = Slave states
results of the missouri compromise of 1820
Results of the Missouri Compromise of 1820
  • Kept the peace for nearly 30 years
  • Six new states joined the Union – 3 slave and 3 free….still equal in number
  • AND THEN along came…California
the compromise of 1850
The Compromise of 1850
  • Henry Clay to the rescue AGAIN
  • California = Free
  • New Mexico and Utah territories= people would decide
fugitive slave law
Fugitive Slave Law
  • A new law that said:
    • Anyone caught helping slaves escape would be punished.
    • If you found a runaway slave, you had to return them to their owner.
henry clay the great compromiser
Henry Clay, the Great Compromiser
  • Died in 1852
  • Never gave up hope in finding peaceful solutions to problems
  • One his grave marker it says,
    • “I know no North – no South – No East – No West”
hopes for peace fade
Hopes for Peace Fade
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • Gave people living there the choice by voting
  • Hundreds moved in to “vote” on whether to be a free or slave state.
  • Tempers FLARED and over 200 people were killed in the dispute
  • Nicknamed “ Bleeding Kansas”
dred scott case
Dred Scott Case
  • Supreme Court ruled that once a slave, living in a free state, didn’t change that.
  • Said Scott had “none of the rights and privileges” of American citizens
  • Also said Congress had no right to outlaw slavery because the Constitution protects people’s right to own PROPERTY and slaves were PROPERTY!!!
abraham lincoln works for change
Abraham Lincoln works for Change
  • Violence because of the Kansas-Nebraska act got everyone’s attention
  • Abraham Lincoln was against the SPREAD of slavery
  • Republican Party formed to fight the spread of slavery.
  • Lincoln ran for Senator
  • Stephen A. Douglas, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, was his OPPONENT! The battle is ON………
the lincoln douglas debates
Abraham Lincoln

Tall, thin man from the frontier

Wore plain dark clothes

Not well known

Stephen Douglas

Heavy and a foot shorter than Lincoln

Well educated

Wore fine clothes


Well known

The Lincoln-Douglas Debates

Both were powerful public speakers

  • Each new state should decide the slavery question for itself.
  • “The framers of the Constitution intended slavery to end.”
  • The problem is that slavery is WRONG!
senate winner
Senate Winner
  • Stephen Douglas was re-elected to the Senate.
  • But….now everyone knew who Abraham Lincoln was!!!

Douglas Wins!

lesson 4

Lesson 4

A Time for Hard


The Election of 1860
  • Democratic Party candidate: Douglas
  • Democratic Party south: Breckinridge
  • Republican Party: LINCOLN
stephen a douglas
Stephen A. Douglas
  • West should decide for themselves about slavery.

States' Choice

john breckinridge
John Breckinridge
  • Democratic candidate popular with southerners
  • Government should allow slavery everywhere in the West.

Slavery Everywhere

abraham lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
  • Republican candidate
  • Against the SPREAD of slavery
  • Promised not to stop slavery in the South where it was already practiced.
  • Said he hoped it would one day END there, too.

No Slavery beyond this point!

worried white southerners
Worried White Southerners
  • Many in the South were afraid if Lincoln were elected, slavery would be outlawed.
  • Some even said they would LEAVE the Union if Lincoln was elected.

Lincoln In...We're OUT

lincoln elected president
Lincoln Elected President
  • November 6, 1860
  • December 20, 1860 South Carolina’s leaders seceded from the Union.
  • Later SIX other southern states seceded:
    • Mississippi
    • Florida
    • Alabama
    • Georgia
    • Louisiana
    • Texas
the confederate states of america
The Confederate States of America
  • South Carolina
  • Mississippi
  • Florida
  • Louisiana
  • Alabama
  • Georgia
  • Texas

Jefferson Davis

fort sumter
Fort Sumter
  • Some advised Lincoln to “Let the states go”
  • Others said, “Give in on the slavery question.”
  • Still others said, “Use the ARMY to end their revolt!”

Give In



lincoln s choices
Lincoln’s Choices
  • He wanted to prevent war.
  • “We are not enemies, but friends.”


An important message came from Major Robert Anderson commander at Fort Sumter:

  • Message from Commander Anderson

Supplies at the Fort are almost gone. If new supplies are not sent soon, we will be forced to surrender the fort to the Confederacy.

what to do
What to Do???
  • If I send supplies…Southerners might attack.
  • If I send troops….Southerners WILL attack.
  • If I do nothing…the commander will have to surrender.




  • Lincoln decided to send supply ships
  • And see what the Southerners would do
confederate president davis
Confederate President Davis
  • Davis decided to take over the fort BEFORE the supply ships arrived.
  • Demanded them to surrender.
  • NEVER!
  • The Confederate troops FIRED on the fort, Major Anderson and his men ran out of ammunition and had to give up.
the civil war has begun
The Civil War has Begun!
  • Lincoln called for Americans to join the army to stop the rebellion.
  • Frightened southern states not in the Confederacy now joined with the other 7 states.
  • Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina
  • 11 States Strong