Chapter 18. Background to the Conflict Pre-Civil War Days. Differences Divide North and South. Regional Differences North More factories People began moving to the cities to work Less people were farming People from other countries moved to the North
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Background to the Conflict
Pre-Civil War Days
People began moving to the cities to work
Less people were farming
People from other countries moved to the North
Population grew rapidly to over 19 million PEOPLE!!!
Farming remained the main way to earn a living
Most were small one family farms
Cut lumber, raised cattle, and raised just enough food for their own families
Population was a lot smaller (11 million) than in the North (19 million)
Many people began to turn against slavery
Cost of owning slaves was too high for most
Most slaves worked on large plantations.
Very few white Southerners could afford to own slaves.
Why was slavery an accepted institution in the south even if they knew it was wrong????
Cotton was hard to prepare for market
The little seeds had to be separated from the cotton.
This was very hard to do and took a LOT of TIME
Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin
Made cleaning cotton easier
Farmers grew more cotton and made more money
Needed more slaves to work the cotton
South didn’t like depending on the North’s manufactured goods
Thought the North was getting RICH off of them
Settlers from the South who moved west took their slaves
Settlers from the North didn’t own slaves and thought slavery was wrong.
WHO would WIN Would there be slavery in the new territories or NOT???
Life Under Slavery
Laws for slaves
Slaves could not leave owners’ land
Could not buy or sell goods
Not allowed to learn to read or write
Treated as property with very few privileges
Formed close knit groups to help each other
Sang religious songs to give them strength
Hired to watch the slaves work and punish them if they fell behind.
Most resisted slavery ( act against)
Quiet ways they resisted
Broke tools, left gates open to let the farm animals out, let boats drift away, hid stuff the owners needed and acted like they knew nothing about it at all
John Brown’s rebellion at Harper’s Ferry
A white abolitionist
Stole guns from Harper’s Ferry warehouse to give to slaves
Caught, tried, and hanged
Violent ways to resist
Nat Turner’s Revolt
Led an attack killing 57 people
He and others were caught, tried in court, and hanged
Many chose to run away
Found safe places to hide
Indians protected some
Hid in forest, swamps, and mountains
Some made it to the free North, some to Canada and others went south to Mexico
Many were helped by the Underground Railroad
Many were caught and punished for trying to escape.
System of escape routes leading to freedom
Members were called conductors
Hiding places were called stations
Harriet Tubman was most famous
An escaped slave
Returned to the South over 20 times to help others
Not all Africans were slaves
Some were former slaves freed by their owners
Others had bought their freedom
Some had escaped to freedom
Many lived in the cities where they had a better chance to work
Life for most Africans, free or not, was still hard because:
Unwelcome in many places
Often treated unfairly
Had little freedom
Not allowed to vote or meet in groups
Could not attend school or have certain jobs
A Time for Hard
No Slavery beyond this point!
Lincoln In...We're OUT
THE VERY NEXT DAY
An important message came from Major Robert Anderson commander at Fort Sumter:
Supplies at the Fort are almost gone. If new supplies are not sent soon, we will be forced to surrender the fort to the Confederacy.