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What does research say? . Since the ultimate goal of reading is to obtain meaning from print, comprehension processes play a major role in understanding the growth of a reader (Harvey & Goudvis, 2000; Snow, 1999; Fountas & Pinnell, 2001). What does research say?.

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What does research say
What does research say?

Since the ultimate goal of reading is to obtain meaning from print, comprehension processes play a major role in understanding the growth of a reader (Harvey & Goudvis, 2000; Snow, 1999; Fountas & Pinnell, 2001).


What does research say1
What does research say?

One typical reading intervention involves a developmental progression beginning with instruction at a level where students are most comfortable and gradually progressing in the degree of difficulty (Fountas & Pinnell, 2001).


What does research say2
What does research say?

Villaume (2001) and McCormack (2003) note the differences in student achievement when they are taught at their instructional level (i.e. 90% or better accuracy in word identification) compared to when they are taught at their frustration level (below 90% accuracy in word identification).


Program description

Guided Reading

Students grouped according to individualized assessment results

Literacy centers used to support targeted reading instruction

Daily, teacher directed guided reading instruction with small groups of 3-6 students

Structured Guided Reading lesson plan format

Systematic Word Study Instruction

Developmental spelling assessments used to determine areas of strength/concern

Systematic, explicit word study instruction

Word work at the end of each guided reading lesson

Vocabulary words taught through daily read alouds, & math, science and social studies class.

Program Description


Use targeted instruction to grow readers
Use Targeted Instruction to Grow Readers

A Reader at Level B-C

  • Can identify letter names & connect most letters to their sounds

  • Can use picture support & sometimes initial letters to problem solve words

  • Can segment the prominent sounds and enjoys clapping out the syllables in words

  • Can talk about or retell specific parts of stories

  • Initial sounds & some ending sounds are represented sequentially by single consonants

    • I p w mi br. [I play with my brother.]

      (from STEP Assessment System University of Chicago)


Use targeted instruction to grow readers1
Use Targeted Instruction to Grow Readers

A Reader at Level I-K

  • Can use knowledge of some complex letter patterns to problem solve words

  • Can read in 3 or 4 word phrases with attention to punctuation

  • Can recall details from a story to support answers to inferential questions

  • Can use more word solving strategies (complex letter patterns, chunking syllables, MSV clues, punctuation, etc.)

    (from STEP Assessment System University of Chicago)


What is the role of the teacher
What is the role of the teacher?

  • Analyze student data (running records, GR anecdotal notes, diagnostic test results).

  • Determine what different groups of students need to know.

  • Search available resources.

  • Decide on possible strategies & lessons.

  • Implement, observe & fine-tune instruction.


What is the role of the teacher1
What is the role of the teacher?

  • Observe: What is the child doing?

  • Ask:

    • What does the child know how to do?

    • What does the child need to know how to do?

    • How will I teach what the child needs to know?




Assessment informed instruction bringing it together

Accuracy:

Look for patterns in student miscues.

What type of info was used?

Meaning: Does the error make sense fitting the story meaning or picture cues?

Structure: Does it sound right (English syntax)?

Visual: Does it look right (letter/sound correspondence)?

Fluency: Do not forget about fluency!

Time running records & compare students’ reading rate with that of a nationally normed sample.

Assessment Informed Instruction: Bringing it Together

Comprehension:

  • Factual questions

  • Inferential questions

  • Story retelling

    • Meaning

    • Main ideas

    • Coherence

    • Vocabulary


Guided reading lesson format
Guided Reading Lesson Format

  • Introduction

  • Reading the Text

  • Discussing the Text

  • Teaching for Processing Strategies

  • Word Work


Sample guided reading lesson our mom level e
Sample Guided Reading LessonOur Mom, Level E

Introduction:

Today, we will be reading the book Our Mom. It was written by Jenny Giles and Bill Thomas Photographed the pictures for this book. These two children are going to tell us about their mom and the things that they do together. What are some things that you do with you mom/mother?

Let’s look on pages 2 & 3. Good readers use information from the pictures to find out about the story. What do you notice about the pictures on these pages? That’s just what the words say, let’s read the words.

Look at the picture on page 5. What do you think is happening now in the story?

Let’s read this page together.

We are going to see the word “some” a lot in this book. Can you find the word “some” on page 8. It starts with an “s” . …… What letter does it have in the middle? That’s great, because good readers look at the middle part of a word to figure it out.

Now start reading from the beginning to find out what they have to say about their mom.

Reading Text: listen in to students reading text, assist individual students with reading prompts, take notes on individual students (anecdotal assessments)

Discussing the text:

Where do you think this family lives? What season is it? How can you tell?

Was there something that these children did with their mom that you also do?

Teaching for Processing Strategies:

highlight particular reading strategy used by student OR teach students a new strategy that would benefit the group determined by student miscues and strategies used while reading text

Word Work:

Using dry-erase boards, each student will generate & read a list of word family words using the short vowel endings “at” and “it”.


Sample guided reading lesson the candy store level i
Sample Guided Reading LessonThe Candy Store, Level I

Warm-Up:

Review the names and values of a collection of pennies, nickels and dimes. Practice showing 10 cents in a variety of ways using these coins. Also give the following practice problem: Gummi Bears are 5 cents each. Can you buy one? Can you buy two?

Introduction:

Today, we will be reading the book The Candy Story. It was written by Janice Novakowski and illustrated by Joe Weissman. Who has gone to the candy store before? What did you buy? Well, in this story, Raj and Rena are going to the candy store and they each have 10 cents to spend.

Let’s look on page 2. Good readers use information from the pictures to find out about the story. Look at the picture on this page. How many pennies does Raj have to spend? How many nickels does Rena have? They each have ten cents. The word cents starts with a “c” but it makes the /s/ sound. Point to that word on the page.

Look at the clock on page 3. What time is it? Do you know what time the candy store opens? How could you find out?

I want you to read this book to find out what Raj and Rena buy at the candy store. Before you read let’s talk about what good readers do. We already know that this book has lots of clues in the pictures to help tell the story. But what do you do when you get stuck on a word? (Practice finding parts of the words “treat” and “spend” on the dry erase board.)

Now start reading from the beginning to find out what happened at the candy store.

Reading Text: listen in to students reading text, assist individual students with reading prompts, take notes on individual students (anecdotal assessments)

Discussing the Text:

What did Raj and Rena buy at the candy store?

How much time did they spend at the candy store?

What do you think might have happened if they had found one dollar?

Teaching for Processing Strategies:

highlight particular reading strategy used by student OR teach students a new strategy that would benefit the group

determined by student miscues and strategies used while reading text

Word Work:

Using dry-erase boards, each student will make words using the letters in the large word “metropolitan”.


Assessment informed instruction student prompts

Good Readers...

…look at the pictures and think: Does this make sense?

…listen to their reading and think: Does it sound right?

…check the letters in words and think: Does that look right?

…decide if their reading looks right, sounds right & makes sense.

…think about what happened so far in the story.

…match sounds to the letters they see.

…look for parts of a word that they know.

Assessment Informed Instruction: Student Prompts