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What determine the current distribution of animals and plants?. 1. Habitat today: physical setting - climate, soil biotic setting - vegetation type, food availability, mutualistic relationships. 2. History: antiquity - the place of origin.
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1. Habitat today: physical setting - climate, soil
2. History: antiquity - the place of origin.
1. Animals move more than land moves (Darlington 1959, "Zoogeography")
2. Sahara has vast petrified logs and major (dry) river drainage systems indicating much rain and lush forest in the past. (Did climates change or did land move?)
3. The tropical regions share few mammal families but many plant families.
Ocean ridge (divergent zone)
Mammal families that evolved after separation of continents (many during 25-5 Ma) are not shared between continents.
Many angiosperm families that had evolved before separation of continents are shared among them.
NeotropicsConvergence of forms in relation to their ecological niches of mammals
Pigmy hippopotamus vs. Capybara
Water chevrotain vs. Paca
Royal antelope vs. Agouti
Yellow-backed Duiker vs. Red brocket deer
Giant ground pangolin vs. Ginant armadilo
Fossil pollens from Tertiary South America.a.Bombax (Bombacaceae)b. Mauritia palmc. Amanoa (Euphorbiaceae)d. CrudiaLeguminosae)e. Albizia(Leguminosae)f. Alnus (after closure of Panama isthmus)
(Moreley 2000, after Crane 1987)
Islands around Coral Sea (e.g., New Caledonia) and Madagasar (Morley 2000)
Eustatic curve(sea level)
Late Cretaceous vegetation of North America: T: tropical forestP: paratropical forestD: polar broadleaved deciduous forest(Upchurch and Wolfe 1987)
Early Oligocene (36-30 Ma) after disappearance of mid-latitude megathermal forests at the terminal Ecocene cooling (36 Ma):‘interglacial’ model
Altitudinal and latitudinal forest zones in SE and E Asia.The limit of evergreen broad leaved trees = -1 º C for the coldest mo.The limit of heat requirement for all trees = 15ºC month temperature sum (or the annual sum of mean monthly temperatures over 5 º C)
(Osawa 1990 adopted in Morley 2000)
(Whitmore 1998, adopting Hammen 1969)