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Contraceptive Attitudes among Female College Students. Kellie D. Bryant RN, DNP Associate Professor SUNY Downstate. Problem: Unintended Pregnancy & Contraception. 60% of pregnancies are unintended Leading causes are lack of contraceptive use and contraceptive failure

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contraceptive attitudes among female college students

Contraceptive Attitudes among Female College Students

Kellie D. Bryant RN, DNP

Associate Professor

SUNY Downstate

problem unintended pregnancy contraception
Problem: Unintended Pregnancy & Contraception
  • 60% of pregnancies are unintended
  • Leading causes are lack of contraceptive use and contraceptive failure
  • 53% of unintended pregnancies could have been avoided if women used contraception
highest teenage pregnancy rate
Highest Teenage Pregnancy Rate
  • US (52.1 births/1000 women 15-19 years)

2. United Kingdom (30.8 births/1000) second

Highest teenage births among 28 rich nations.

reasons for lack of contraceptive use
Reasons for Lack of Contraceptive Use
  • Misconceptions about contraceptives
  • Negative attitude about contraception
  • Failure to recognize the risk of pregnancy
  • Inability to communicate with their partner about contraceptives
  • Partners disapprove of contraception
  • Worried about side effects
barriers to contraception
Barriers to Contraception
  • Cost, substandard health care facilities, childcare issues, and lack of transportation
  • Among Blacks and Hispanics -decreased income, higher rate of unemployment, decreased level of education, and lack of insurance
purpose of study
Purpose of Study
  • To examine contraceptive attitudes and demographic characteristics of contraceptive users among female college students from three different groups of contraceptive use
three contraceptive groups
Three Contraceptive Groups
  • “All the time” = Uninterrupted user
  • “Sometimes” = Intermittent contraceptive user
  • “Never” = Contraceptive nonusers
importance of proposed study
Importance of Proposed Study
  • Contraceptive use among college students has not been well examined
  • Lack of research on contraceptive use since the development of newer forms of contraceptives
importance of proposed study9
Importance of Proposed Study
  • Identification of women’s attitudes about contraceptives may help health care providers eliminate some of the barriers and misconceptions regarding contraceptives.
  • Women ages 18-24 have a high rate of unintended pregnancy rate
research questions
Research Questions
  • What are the most commonly used contraceptive methods among female college students?
  • What percentage of female college students are in the 3 groups of contraceptive users: uninterrupted, intermittent, and nonusers?
research questions12
Research Questions
  • What are the most common demographic characteristics among the 3 groups (uninterrupted contraceptive users, intermittent contraceptive users, & contraceptive nonusers?
  • What are the contraceptive attitude scores of female college students?
research question
Research Question
  • Do contraceptive attitude scores of female college students vary by race, age, marital status, and socioeconomic status?
  • Do contraceptive attitude scores vary among uninterrupted contraceptive users, intermittent contraceptive users, and contraceptive nonusers?
hypothesis
Hypothesis

1. Demographic factors associated with uninterrupted contraceptive use are being married, 24 years of age or older, from a higher socioeconomic status, and White.

hypothesis15
Hypothesis

2. Contraceptive attitude scores will be lowest among females who are Black or Hispanic, less than 24 years of age, unmarried, and from lower socioeconomic levels.

hypothesis16
Hypothesis

3. Contraceptive attitude scores among uninterrupted contraceptive users will be higher than among intermittent contraceptive users and nonusers.

design
Design
  • Quantitative, comparative descriptive design
  • Participants categorized by the frequency they use their preferred contraceptive method: 1) Uninterrupted, 2) Intermittent, and 3) non use of contraceptives.
setting
Setting
  • University located in a highly diverse area of a large metropolitan city on the east coast.
  • 47% black, 15% Hispanic, 25% white, and 13% Asian
  • 72% female
  • Average age of an undergraduate student is 24 years
sample criteria
Sample Criteria
  • Inclusion criteria - female college student, between the ages of 18 to 44, who can read and speak English and has been sexually active in the past three months
  • Exclusion criteria - females older than 44, younger than 18 years of age, and students who do not speak or read English.
sample
Sample
  • Convenience, purposive sample N = 120
  • Mean age = 24.2

Range = 18 to 44 years

  • Racial background : Black (45%),

White (19.2%), Hispanic (14.2%),

Asian/Pacific Islander (13.3%).

sample22
Sample
  • Student income: 65.3 % earned <$19,999
  • Marital Status: 12.5% married
  • Religion: 63.4% Christian, 11.7% No Religion

Classified into 3 groups of contraceptive users: 1) Uninterrupted, 2) Intermittent, 3) Non- user

questionnaire
Questionnaire

The survey consisted of three questionnaires

    • Contraceptive Attitude Scale
    • Contraceptive Use Tool
    • Demographic Tool
  • Survey took approximately 11 minutes to complete
rq 1 results most commonly used contraceptive methods
RQ 1 Results: Most commonly used contraceptive methods
  • The 5 most preferred methods: male condom (48.2%), pill (22.4%), withdrawal (10.6%), patch (4.7%), and Depo Provera (4.1%).
research question 3
Research Question #3
  • What are the most common demographic characteristics among uninterrupted contraceptive users, intermittent contraceptive users, and contraceptive nonusers?
rq 3 results
RQ# 3 Results
  • The findings from this study failed to find a relationship between contraceptive use and race, age, socioeconomic level, years of education, or religion
  • May be due to the homogenous sample of students at the University.
research question 4
Research Question #4
  • What are the contraceptive attitude scores of female college students?
rq 4 results
RQ#4: Results
  • The contraceptive attitude scores for the participants in the study were homogenous.
  • Most participants had a positive attitude.
  • The mean score for the group was 4.1008 out of 5 with a SD of 0.498.
research question 5
Research Question #5
  • Do contraceptive attitude scores of female college students vary by race, age, marital status, and socioeconomic status?
rq 5 results
RQ # 5 Results
  • Contraceptive attitude scores did not vary by age, race, marital status, and socioeconomic status
research question 6
Research Question #6
  • Do contraceptive attitude scores vary among uninterrupted contraceptive users, intermittent contraceptive users, and contraceptive nonusers?
results among 3 contraceptive groups
Results among 3 Contraceptive Groups
  • Uninterrupted users scored 0.27 points higher on the contraceptive attitude scale than intermittent users.
  • Uninterrupted users scored 0.45 points higher than nonusers.
contraceptive attitude scale
Contraceptive Attitude Scale
  • Students with higher contraceptive attitude scores were more likely to be consistent contraceptive users.
additional findings
Additional Findings
  • Blacks were more likely to use condoms.
  • Older women less likely to use birth control.
  • Whites more likely to use withdrawal method.
  • Younger students more likely to use condoms.
  • Students with more years of college were more likely to use birth control.
top 5 reasons for not using birth control
Top 5 Reasons for Not using Birth Control
  • Worried about side effects
  • Health concerns
  • Opposed to birth control
  • Partner opposed
  • Want children
woman 35 and older
Woman 35 and Older
  • Women 35 & older were less likely to use birth control
  • May be due to older woman believing they have a small chance of becoming pregnant
  • May be due to increased fear of side effects due to advanced age and the misconception that hormonal methods may negatively affect their health.
younger woman and condoms
Younger Woman and Condoms
  • Increased condom use was among younger woman.
  • May be contributed to younger woman being less likely to be married or in a long term monogamous relationship.
  • Younger woman to be more likely to use condoms due to concerns about protection against sexually transmitted infections.
what works
What Works???
  • Better contraceptive services;
  • New methods that are more effective and easier to use;
  • Methods with noncontraceptive benefits
  • Making methods available without the need to see a doctor
  • Improved education -
evidence practice to decrease unintended pregnancies
Evidence Practice to Decrease Unintended Pregnancies
  • Women considering birth control should receive detailed information - both verbal and written
information to discuss with clients
Information to Discuss with Clients
  • Contraceptive efficacy
  • Duration of use
  • Risks and possible side effects
  • Non-contraceptive benefits
  • The procedure for initiation and removal/discontinuation
  • When to seek help while using the method
evidence based practice45
Evidence Based Practice
  • Adequate time during consultations to address contraceptive and broader health issues .
  • Contraceptive and sexual health services in schools to promote and provide the planning, delivery, and evaluation of sex and relationship education.
evidence based practice46
Evidence Based Practice
  • IUD’s , IUS, and implants are more cost effective than the injectable contraceptives
  • Increasing the use of these methods will reduce the number of unintended pregnancies
in reality
In Reality…
  • No single intervention will make a measurable difference.
  • Providers should concentrate on encouraging correct and consistent use.
  • Frequent follow-up appointments are required .
the end

The End

Questions and Answer