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The Behavior of Gases. Properties of Gases (Review). No definite shape No definite volume compressible. Kinetic Molecular Theory. moving. molecules. well supported ideas. Basic Kinetic Theory of Gases. Composed of particles like atoms (ex: He) or molecules like (O 2 and CO 2 )

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properties of gases review
Properties of Gases (Review)
  • No definite shape
  • No definite volume
  • compressible
kinetic molecular theory
Kinetic Molecular Theory

moving

molecules

well supported ideas

basic kinetic theory of gases
Basic Kinetic Theory of Gases
  • Composed of particles like atoms (ex: He) or molecules like (O2 and CO2)

There are no attractive/repulsive forces.

Lots of empty space!!

basic kinetic theory of gases1
Basic Kinetic Theory of Gases

2. Particles move in random, constant, straight-line motion.

Move independently of each other.

basic kinetic theory of gases2
Basic Kinetic Theory of Gases

3. All collisions are elastic meaning that KE is transferred without loss of energy.

No change in kinetic energy.

Gases tend to diffuse towards areas of lower concentration.

gas pressure
Gas Pressure
  • Pressure- force exerted on container walls by particles in a gas
  • Units used- kPa, atm, Torr, mmHg
  • STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure) Table A

273 K or 0°C and

101.3 kPa = 1 atm = 760 Torr (mmHg)

slide9
Pressure and volume have an inverse relationship, if temperature remains constant.
  • If volume is increased, pressure is decreased by the same factor.
mathematically the product of pv is constant or pv k where k is some constant
Mathematically, the product of PV is constant or PV = k (where k is some constant).

Boyle’ Law

P1 V1 = P2 V2 = P3 V3…

slide11
Volume and temperature have a direct relationship, if pressure is held constant.
  • If temperature (K) is increased, volume is increased by the same factor.
mathematically the relationship of volume divided by kelvin temperature is constant or v t k
Mathematically, the relationship of volume divided by Kelvin temperature is constant or V/T = k.

Charles’ Law

V1 /T1 = V2 /T2 = V3 /T3 …

slide13
Pressure and temperature have a direct relationship, if volume remains constant.
  • If temperature (K) is increased, pressure will be increased by the same factor.
mathematically the relationship of volume divided by kelvin temperature is constant or p t k
Mathematically, the relationship of volume divided by Kelvin temperature is constant or P/T = k.

Gay-Lussac’s Law

P1 /T1 = P2 /T2 = P3 /T3 …

Pressure

combined gas law equation
Combined Gas Law Equation

P1 V1 = P2 V2

T1 T2

combined gas law equation1
Combined Gas Law Equation
  • Steps:
  • Determine which variable (if any) is kept constant.
  • Cancel those terms and remove them from the equation (Ex: If the question says that temperature remains constant the new equation becomes P1V1 = P2V2).
  • Plug in values that are given.
  • Solve for the unknown.
  • Be sure to always use temperature in Kelvins.
ideal gases vs real gases
Ideal Gases vs. Real Gases
  • “Ideal gases” behave as predicted by Kinetic Molecular Theory.
  • Examples: H2 and He
  • Gases are most ideal at high temperature and low pressure (also have low mass and low polarity).
slide19
“Real gases” deviate from ideal behavior.
  • Why?
  • At low temps, gas particles become attracted to each other (KMT says they are not).
  • Under high pressure, gases occupy a specific volume (KMT says they don’t).
avogadro s law
Avogadro’s Law
  • Avogadro’s number: 6.02 x 1023
  • Simply refers to the quantity of particles found in a mole.
  • At STP, 6.02 x 1023 particles of a gas occupies 22.4 L.
  • At STP, 3.01 x 1023 particles of a gas occupies 11.2 L.
a avogadro s principle

V

n

A. Avogadro’s Principle
  • Equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of moles
    • at constant temp & pressure
    • true for any gas
avogadro s law1
Avogadro’s Law

V1 = V2

n1 n2

practice with avogadro s law
Practice with Avogadro’s Law
  • Suppose 5.00 L of a gas is known to contain 0.965 mol. If the amount of gas is increased to 1.80 mol, what new volume will result (at an unchanged temperature and pressure)?
slide24

Suppose 5.00 L of a gas is known to contain 0.965 mol. If the amount of gas is increased to 1.80 mol, what new volume will result (at an unchanged temperature and pressure)?

Remember your formula!

V1 = V2

n1 n2

Plug in your values!

(5.00L) = x

(0.965 mol) (1.80 mol)

9 = 0.965x

X = 9.33 L

slide25
Avogadro also hypothesized that equal volumes of different gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal number of particles (or equal moles).
b ideal gas law
B. Ideal Gas Law

PV=nRT

UNIVERSAL GAS CONSTANT

R=0.0821 Latm/molK

R =8.315 dm3kPa/molK

b ideal gas law1
B. Ideal Gas Law
  • Calculate the pressure in atmospheres of 0.412 mol of He at 16°C & occupying 3.25 L.

IDEAL GAS LAW :

PV = nRT

b ideal gas law2
B. Ideal Gas Law
  • Calculate the pressure in atmospheres of 0.412 mol of He at 16°C & occupying 3.25 L.

IDEAL GAS LAW

GIVEN:

P = ? atm

n = 0.412 mol

T = 16°C = 289 K

V = 3.25 L

R = 0.0821Latm/molK

WORK:

PV = nRT

P(3.25)=(0.412)(0.0821)(289)

L mol Latm/molK K

P = 3.01 atm

b ideal gas law3
B. Ideal Gas Law
  • Find the volume of 85 g of O2 at 25°C and 104.5 kPa.

IDEAL GAS LAW

b ideal gas law4

WORK:

85 g 1 mol = 2.7 mol

32.00 g

B. Ideal Gas Law
  • Find the volume of 85 g of O2 at 25°C and 104.5 kPa.

IDEAL GAS LAW

GIVEN:

V=?

n=85 g

T=25°C = 298 K

P=104.5 kPa

R=8.315dm3kPa/molK

= 2.7 mol

PV = nRT

(104.5)V=(2.7) (8.315) (298)

kPa mol dm3kPa/molKK

V = 64 dm3

a dalton s law

Ptotal = P1 + P2 + ...

Patm = PH2 + PH2O

A. Dalton’s Law
  • The total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.
dalton s law of partial pressure
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
  • The total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were alone.
dalton s law of partial pressure1
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
  • Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + . .

Where P1 and P2 are the partial pressure of gas 1and gas 2 in the mixture. Since each gas behaves independently, the ideal gas law can be used to calculate the pressure of that gas if we know the number of moles of the gas, the total volume of the container, and the temperature of the gas.

dalton s law of partial pressure2
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
  • When we apply the ideal gas law to mixtures of gases each component gas will have its own P and n, but all of the component gases will have the same T and V.
example of dalton s law of partial pressure
Example of Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
  • What is the total pressure exerted by a mixture of 2.00 g of H2 (MW = 2.016 g/mol), 8.00 g of N2 (MW = 28.01 g/mol) and 12.0 g of Ar (AW = 39.95 g/mol) at 273 K in a 10.0 L vessel?
dalton s law of partial pressure ex 1
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure Ex 1
  • First we need to calculate the number of moles of each gas:
  • 2.00 g H2 x [1 mol/2.016 g] = 0.992 mol
  • 8.00 g N2 x [1 mol/28.01 g] = 0.286 mol
  • 12.0 g Ar x [1 mol/39.95 g] = 0.300 mol
dalton s law of partial pressure ex 11
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure Ex 1
  • Now that we have found the moles of each gas, how can we find the pressure of each gas GIVEN the number of moles, the volume, the temperature,and the constant R?
we can use
We can use…
  • The Ideal Gas Law!
  • PV = nRT
dalton s law of partial pressure ex 12
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure Ex 1
  • Now we can calculate the partial pressure of each gas:
  • P(H2) = nRT/V = [(0.992)(0.0821)(273)]/(10.0) = 2.22 atm
  • P(N2) = nRT/V = [(0.286)(0.0821)(273)]/(10.0) = 0.641 atm
  • P(Ar) = nRT/V = [(0.300)(0.0821)(273)]/(10.0) = 0.672 atm
dalton s law of partial pressure3
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
  • We can now use the law of partial pressures to calculate the total pressure:
  • Ptotal = P(H2) + P(N2) + P(Ar) = 2.22 + 0.641 + 0.672 = 3.53 atm
slide41
Hydrogen gas is collected over water at 22.5°C. Find the pressure of the dry gas if the atmospheric pressure is 94.4 kPa.
a dalton s law1
A. Dalton’s Law
  • Hydrogen gas is collected over water at 22.5°C. Find the pressure of the dry gas if the atmospheric pressure is 94.4 kPa.

The total pressure in the collection bottle is equal to atmospheric pressure and is a mixture of H2 and water vapor.

GIVEN:

PH2 = ?

Ptotal = 94.4 kPa

PH2O = 2.72 kPa

WORK:

Ptotal = PH2 + PH2O

94.4 kPa = PH2 + 2.72 kPa

PH2 = 91.7 kPa

Look up water-vapor pressure

vapor pressure
Vapor Pressure
  • In a sealed container, vapor pressure can be measured above a liquid.
  • Evaporation occurs when some particles from the surface of a liquid escape causing pressure to build up above the liquid (not to be confused with boiling).
factors that increase the rate of evaporation
Factors that Increase the Rate of Evaporation
  • Heating a liquid (not to boiling point)
  • Increasing surface area
  • Create air currents

(blow across the surface)

liquid vapor equilibrium
Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium
  • Some of the gas particles condense and then we find both evaporating and condensing occurs at the same rate.
  • Rate of Evaporation = Rate of Condensation
related to boiling
Related to Boiling
  • Boiling occurs when the vapor pressure becomes equal to the external pressure.
  • At normal atmospheric pressure, we call this normal boiling point.
boiling and attractive intermolecular forces
Boiling and Attractive (Intermolecular Forces)
  • Boiling occurs when heat energy overcomes attractive forces between molecules.
  • The stronger the intermolecular forces, the higher the boiling point.
  • The weaker the intermolecular forces, the lower the boiling point.
table h
Table H

Notice, increasing temperature increases vapor pressure.

Line drawn at 101.3 kPa corresponds to normal boiling point.