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The Crisis of Reconstruction, 1865-1877. Chapter 16. Results of the Civil War: . Over 620,000 men died The South’s economy was destroyed What about status of 3.5 million former slaves?. The process of putting the nation back together after the Civil War (1865-1877). Reconstruction:.

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results of the civil war
Results of the Civil War:
  • Over 620,000 men died
  • The South’s economy was destroyed
  • What about status of 3.5 million former slaves?
The process of putting the nation back together after the Civil War (1865-1877)Reconstruction:

The re-building of the Union

(and the South in particular)

13 th amendment 1865
13th Amendment (1865)
  • “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”
  • Prohibited slavery.
reconstruction 1865 1877
Reconstruction (1865-1877)

When the North won the Civil War in 1865, the era of Reconstruction began

Should the president, as commander-in-chief, be in charge?

What branchof governmentis in charge ofReconstruction?

How should the

North bring the

South back into

the Union?

Quickly, to show Americans that they are willing to forgive?

“Old South” based on cotton farming with blacks as workers?

Should freed blacks be given the right to vote?

Should Congress be in charge because the Constitution gives it power to let territories in as states?

Slowly, to make sure the South doesn’t try to secede again?

“New South” with textile factories & railroads with paid labor?

How do you protect blacks against racists whites in the South?

How should the

North rebuild

the South after

its destruction during the war?

How should the

North integrate

and protect

newly-emancipatedblack freedmen?

lincoln s plan 1863
Lincoln’s Plan (1863)

VERY lenient…

  • 10% of Confederate voters in southern states must:
      • Accept emancipation
      • Swear loyalty to the Union
  • High ranking Confederate officials could not vote or hold office unless pardoned by the President
  • Once these conditions were met, a state could return to the Union

Congress rejected Lincoln’s plan:

Radical Republicans wanted black male suffrage added & feared that Confederate leaders would take charge in the South

opposition to lincoln s plan
Opposition to Lincoln’s Plan

Wade-Davis Bill:

    • In 1864, Congress wrote its own plan:
      • 50% of state populations had to swear an oath of loyalty
      • Confederate leaders were not eligible to vote or participate in state governments
      • Did not require black suffrage but did enforce emancipation
  • Lincoln killed the bill using a pocket veto (it passed in the last 10 days of the legislative session)

By the end of the Civil War, the U.S. government had no plan for Reconstruction in place

This problem was compounded in 1865 when Lincoln was assassinated

lincoln s assassination
April 14, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth

Watching the play, “Our American Cousin,” at Ford’s Theater in Washington, DC

Lincoln’s Assassination
after lincoln s death 3 men
After Lincoln’s Death, 3 Men:
  • Thaddeus Stevens
  • Charles Sumner
  • Andrew Johnson

Radical Republicans

Stevens Sumner

radical republicans
Radical Republicans:
  • Members of the Republican Party who wanted to:
    • Punish the south for causing the Civil War
    • Fought to protect the rights of former slaves
thaddeus stevens radical republican
Thaddeus Stevens (Radical Republican)
  • Member of the House of Reps
  • Goal: economic opportunity for former slaves
charles sumner radical republican
Charles Sumner (Radical Republican)
  • Member of US Senate
  • Goal: citizenship/political rights for former slaves
andrew johnson
Andrew Johnson
  • Former Senator from TN, became Lincoln’s VP
  • A Democrat; Reconstruction plan similar to Lincoln’s
  • Issued 13,000 pardons
  • Unconcerned with rights of former slaves
  • Impeached in 1868
johnson s reconstruction plan
Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan:
  • Appointed provisional state governors to lead state constitutional conventions
  • States must declare secession illegal & ratify the 13th Amend’t
  • Southern conventions reluctantly obeyed Johnson’s Reconstruction policy but passed Black Codes
the freedman s bureau
The Freedman’s Bureau

The Freedman’s Bureau was established in 1865 to offer assistance to former slaves & protect their new citizenship:

Provided emergency food, housing, medical supplies

Promised “40 acres & a mule”

Supervised labor contracts

Created new schools


Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes

“Plenty to eat & nothing to do”


Freedmen’s Bureau School

Many former abolitionists moved South to help freedmen, called “carpetbaggers” by Southern Democrats

congressional reconstruction
Congressional Reconstruction
  • Following Johnson’s impeachment, Congress controlled reconstruction.
  • Congress passed the Reconstruction Acts (1867-68):
        • The former Confederate States were militarily occupied by US troops
        • States could re-enter the Union once they ratified the 14th Amendment
the 14 th amendment
The 14th Amendment

In 1866, Congress voted to extend the Freedmen’s Bureau & passed a Civil Rights Bill to protect against Black Codes

Johnson vetoed both bills, arguing that they violated states’ rights

Congress overrode both vetoes (for the 1st time in U.S. history!)

the 14 th amendment1
The 14th Amendment

Congress feared Johnson would allow violations of civil rights so it passed the 14th Amendment:

Federal gov’t must protect the civil rights of all Americans

Defined the meaning of “citizenship” for Americans

Clearly defined punishments for Southern states who violated the civil rights of African-Americans

14 th amendment 1868
14th Amendment (1868)
  • All persons born the US are citizens of the US
  • All citizens are guaranteed equal treatment under the law
  • Punished states that denied adult males the right to vote
johnson s swing around the circle
Johnson’s “Swing Around the Circle”

In the 1866 mid-term elections, Johnson toured the South trying to convince voters to elect Congressmen who would reject the 14th Amendment

The plan back-fired & Republicans won a 3-1 majority in both houses of Congress & gained control of every northern state

radical reconstruction
Radical Reconstruction

Congress, led by Thaddeus Stevens, trumped Johnson by passing it its own Radical Reconstruction plan in 1867:

Congress could confiscate & redistribute Southern plantations

Allowed quick re-entry for states that supported black suffrage

Ex-Confederates couldn’t vote

Thaddeus Stevens the most influential of the “radical” Republicans; He opposed the Crittenden Compromise, led the impeachment charges against Johnson, & drafted the Radical Reconstruction plan used from 1867 to 1877


Created 5 military districts to enforce acts

But, Radical Reconstruction was so dependent on massive & sustained federal aid that it was not adequate to enforce equality in the South…

…and Johnson obstructed Republicans’ plans by removing sympathetic cabinet members & generals

the impeachment crisis
The Impeachment Crisis

In Feb 1868, the House voted 126-47 to impeach Johnson, but the Senate fell 1 vote short of conviction & removal from office

Johnson argued that removal could only occur due to “high crimes & misdemeanors” but no “crime” had been committed

Some Republicans refused to establish the precedent of removing a president

But…Johnson did promise to enforce Reconstruction for the remainder of his term…& he did!

For violating the Tenure of Office Act when he tried to fire Sec of War Edwin Stanton

impeachment and removal of a president
Impeachment and Removal of a President
  • Impeachment: to bring formal charges against the President (Majority vote in the House of Reps)
  • Trial/Removal: The President stands trial (the Senate acts as jury; 2/3 majority vote is needed for removal)
johnson and impeachment
Johnson and Impeachment
  • Johnson was impeached, but not removed from office; he was ineffective following impeachment
reconstructing southern society
Reconstructing Southern Society

How did Reconstruction impact the South?

Southern whites wanted to keep newly-freed blacks inferior

Freed blacks sought equality, property, education, & the vote

Many Northerners moved South to make money or to "civilize" the region after the Civil War

sharecropping a new slavery
Sharecropping: A New Slavery?

The Civil War destroyed Southern land, economy, & transportation

Recovering meant finding a new labor system to replace slavery:

The South tried a contract-labor system but it was ineffective

Sharecropping “solved” the problem; black farmers worked on white planters’ land, but had to pay ¼ or ½ of their crops


Problem: families accumulated debt to the landowner before their crop was sold; This cyclical process led to mortgages on future crops (crop lien system)

By the end of 1865, most freedmen had returned to work on the same plantations on which they were previously enslaved

black codes a new slavery
Black Codes: A New Slavery?

Violence & discrimination against freedmen by whites was common:

Southerners used black codes to keep former slaves from voting, getting jobs, buying land

1,000s of blacks were murdered

U.S. army did not have enough troopstokeep order in the South

republican rule in the south
Republican Rule in the South

In 1867, a Southern Republican Party was formed by:

Northern “carpetbaggers”

Southern “scalawags” interested in making money in the South

Small, white farmers who wanted protection from creditors

Blacks who wanted civil rights

Many Southern blacks were elected to state & national gov’t

Southern Republicans were only in power for 1-9 years but improved public education, welfare, & transportation


Black House & Senate Delegates

Black & White Political Participation

“Colored Rule in a Reconstructed South”

Black Republicans were accused of corruption & lack of civility

civil war reconstruction review
Civil War & Reconstruction Review

Examine the major political & military events listed on the “Key Events of the Civil War” timeline; Complete the missing sections

Examine “Reconstruction Plans…” & identify the major components of each section of the chart; Be prepared to discuss your answers to the discussion questions.

gaining rights for blacks
Gaining Rights for Blacks

In 1870, the 15th Amendment gave all men the right to vote regardless of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”

Freedmen fought for civil rights:

Legalized marriage

Used courts to assert claims against whites & other blacks

Saw education as their 1st opportunity to become literate

Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote!

the election of 1868





South Carolina

The Election of 1868


North Carolina


  • In 1867, Thaddeus Stevens’ Radical Reconstruction plan was in place & a southern Republican party hoped to build a New South
  • By 1868, 8 of the 11 former Confederate states were accepted back into the Union after creating state constitutions & ratifying the 14th Amendment
the election of 18681
The Election of 1868
  • But, the U.S. had lots of problems:
    • Excessiveprintingofgreenbacks during the Civil War led to high inflation which hurt both the Northern & Southern economies
    • Southern “Redeemers” & secret societies tried to undermine Congressional attempts to reconstruct the South
the 1868 presidential election

Democrats refused to re-nominate Johnson & chose NY governor Horatio Seymour

The 1868 Presidential Election

Republicans nominated Civil War hero Ulysses S. Grant who had the support of Republicans in the North & South as well as Southern freedmen who voted for the 1st time

In the election of 1868, both parties “waved the bloody shirt” to remind voters why the Civil War was fought

Keeping freed blacks inferior was the most important goal of Southern Democrats

Republican goal: Keep ex-Confederate leaders from restoring the “Old South”

Southern DemocraticStrategy

Southern RepublicanStrategy

grant s national reconstruction plan

Deflations hurt indebted farmers the most

In 1876, the Greenback Party was formed to support keeping “soft” money

Grant’s National Reconstruction Plan
  • When Grant was elected, he supported:
    • Shifting back to gold (“sound” or “hard” money) to deflate American currency
    • Using a limited number of U.S. soldiers in the South to enforce Reconstruction efforts
    • Civil rights for freed blacks

…but not enough to encourage widespread resentment among the Southern population

Enough troops should be sent to work with state militias to protect blacks’ rights, reduce violence, & support Republican leaders in Southern state governments…

grant s national reconstruction plan1
Grant’s National Reconstruction Plan
  • Republicans sought equal protection for blacks; ratified the 15th Amendment in 1870:
    • Prohibited any state from denying men the right to vote due to race
    • But…the amendment said nothing about literacy tests, poll taxes, & property qualifications
a reign of terror against blacks
A Reign of Terror Against Blacks
  • From 1868 to 1872, southern Republicans were threatened by secret societies like Ku Klux Klan
    • Hoped to restore the “Old South”
    • Sought to restrict black voting
    • Oppose Republican state gov’ts
  • The KKK was successful in its terror campaigns, helping turn GA, NC, & TN to the Democratic Party

The “Invisible Empire of the South”

“Of course he wants to vote for the Democratic ticket”

a reign of terror against blacks1
A Reign of Terror Against Blacks
  • In 1870, Congress passed the Force Acts (the “KKK Acts”):
    • Made interference in elections a federal crime
    • Gave the president the military power to protect polling places
    • Allowed for high black turnout & Republicans victories in 1872
    • “Redeemer” Democrats openly appealed to white supremacy & laissez-faire government
a reign of terror against blacks2
A Reign of Terror Against Blacks
  • The KKK responded by becoming more open with its terror tactics:
    • Northerners grew impatient with federal Reconstruction efforts & “corrupt” Southern state gov’ts
    • Grant began to refuse to use military force against KKK terrorist attacks
  • By 1876, only SC, FL, & LA were controlled by Republicans
the 1875 civil rights act

In the Slaughterhouse Cases (1873), the court ruled that the 14th Amendment protects only national citizenship rights & does not protect citizens from discrimination by the states

The 1875 Civil Rights Act
  • Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1875 to protect freedmen:
    • Outlawed racial discrimination in public places & in jury selection
  • But the Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional & weakened the 14th & 15th Amendments, leaving southern blacks defenseless against discrimination

In U.S. v Reese (1876) & U.S. v Cruikshank (1876), the court weakened the KKK Act by stating that the 14th Amendment does not protect against actions by individuals

corruption in grant s administration1
Corruption in Grant’s Administration
  • The Republicans experienced rampant corruption during Grant’s 1st term as president:
    • Grant’s Secretary of War was impeached & Attorney General resigned due to corruption
    • Grant’s VP & others were ruined by the Crédit Mobilier scandal involving railroad stock in exchange for political favors

These scandals distracted Americans from Reconstruction efforts

the election of 1872
The Election of 1872
  • Corruption scandals & the failure of Reconstruction in the South led to a split among Republicans:
    • Liberal Republicans were tired of the Grant scandals & believed in reconciling with the South, not military intervention
    • In 1872, Liberal Republicans ran Horace Greeley against Grant

Republicans suppressed the KKK in time for the election; Southern blacks enjoyed a voting freedom they would not see again for a century

1872 Presidential Election

Grant was the only consecutive, 2-term president from Jackson to Teddy Roosevelt, but is commonly regarded as a failure

grant s second term

½ the nation’s RRs defaulted

Over 100 banks collapsed

18,000 businesses closed

Grant’s Second Term

Unemployment reached 15%

  • Grant s 2nd term was plagued by economic depression & corruption
    • Panic of 1873 was the longest depression (until 1929); many blamed large corporations & begged Grant to create jobs
    • Whiskey Ring—Grant’s personal secretary was caught embezzling whiskey taxes

The Grant administration did not see job creation or relief for the poor as its duties

Essential Question:
    • What events from 1868 to 1876 led to the abandonment of federal reconstruction attempts in the South by 1877?
  • Reading Quiz 17B (p 585-598)
1876 election
1876 Election
  • The winner is…?
  • Two candidates:
    • Samuel Tilden: Democrat; political reformer from NY
    • Rutherford B. Hayes: Republican; former OH Governor
the compromise of 1877
The Compromise of 1877

A filibuster is an attempt to extend debate upon a proposal in order to delay or prevent a vote on its passage

  • In 1876, Republicans ran Rutherford B. Hayes against Democrat reformer Samuel Tilden
    • Election results were disputed in three Southern states
    • A special commission gave the disputed votes to Hayes, but Democrats in Congress blocked this decision by filibuster
1876 election1
1876 Election
  • A commission was established to determine winner:

Compromise of 1877:

    • Hayes became President
    • Military occupation of the South ended
      • The rights of former slaves were not protected

A Political Crisis:

The Compromise of 1877

The “Second Corrupt Bargain”

President Rutherfraud B. Hayes

the rise of jim crow
The Rise of Jim Crow
  • From 1877 to 1910, “Redeemer” Democrats imposed restrictions called Jim Crow Laws to limit the civil rights of African Americans
    • 187 blacks were lynched yearly
    • A convict-lease system & prison farms resembled slavery
    • Segregation laws led to separate railroads, streetcars, & public facilities

“Black codes” were laws passed from 1865 to 1877 to keep freed slaves from gaining rights & voting

“Jim Crow laws” were passed after Reconstruction ended to obstruct rights given to black Americans in the 14th & 15th Amendments

the unfinished revolution
The “Unfinished Revolution”
  • Reconstruction lasted only 12 years from 1865 to 1877:
    • Reconciliation between the North & South occurred only after Reconstruction ended
    • By the late 1880s, “reunion” was becoming a reality but at the expense of the blacks’ rights
  • Reconstruction remained an “unfinished revolution”
how effective was the u s in addressing these reconstruction questions
How effective was the U.S. in addressing these Reconstruction questions?
  • How did the
  • federal gov’t
  • bring the South
  • back into the
  • Union?

4. What branchof gov’t took

control ofReconstruction?

2. Was the



into a

“New South”?

3. How were

newly-emancipatedblack freedmen


how effective was the u s in addressing these reconstruction questions1
How effective was the U.S. in addressing these Reconstruction questions?

Should the president, as commander-in-chief, be in charge?

What branchof governmentis in charge ofReconstruction?

How should the

North bring the

South back into

the Union?

Quickly, to show Americans that they are willing to forgive?

“Old South” based on cotton farming with blacks as workers?

Should freed blacks be given the right to vote?

Should Congress be in charge because the Constitution gives it power to let territories in as states?

Slowly, to make sure the South doesn’t try to secede again?

“New South” with textile factories & railroads with paid labor?

How do you protect blacks against racists whites in the South?

How should the

North rebuild

the South after

its destruction during the war?

How should the

North integrate

and protect

newly-emancipatedblack freedmen?

limits to reconstruction
Limits to Reconstruction
  • The Civil War Amendments were a success
  • H/e, there was no redistribution of land and most African Americans lived as sharecroppers and faced little economic opportunity
reconstruction evaluation
Reconstruction: EVALUATION
  • Some argue it was a success because slavery was abolished and African Americans were guaranteed equal treatment
  • Others say it was a failure because after 1877 those rights were only in place on paper; not in reality.
  • Your opinion: Was it a success or failure…?
up from slavery

Up From Slavery

The African-American Struggle for Equality in the Post-Civil War Era

the hard reality of emancipation
The Hard Reality of Emancipation

After the Civil War ended and the 13th Amendment abolished slavery (1865), freedmen found themselves without significant resources to start a new life

The Freedmen’s Bureau (est. 1865) provided direct relief, education, jobs, and medical care in an effort to give freed slaves an opportunity to adjust to their new lives

Despite such efforts, many blacks ended up as tenant farmers who engaged in sharecropping – which involved pledging a share of their harvest as repayment to landowners who leased the land; debt peonage often resulted as black farmers went into debt as a result of not being able to cover costs and debt owed to creditors

the failure of radical reconstruction
The Failure of Radical Reconstruction

The Radical Republican attempt to re-engineer Southern society and politics (1865-77) failed due to:

terrorism - as practiced by the Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacist groups; violence and intimidation kept reformers from carrying out Radical policies

redemption – Southern Democrats regained control of their state governments as a result of the Compromise of 1877, which (after the disputed election of 1876) gave Republican candidate Hayes the White House in exchange for a Republican pledge to withdraw the last federal troops from the South and end Reconstruction

“Jim Crow” laws created institutionalized segregation through such measures as poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses – effectively disenfranchised blacks despite rights provided in the 14th and 15th Amendments

the supreme court limits rights
The Supreme Court Limits Rights

Ex parte Milligan (1866) – the Court ruled that military courts could not try civilians where civil courts were functioning – limited ability of the federal government to prosecute Southern whites who violated the law

Slaughterhouse cases (1873) – the Court created the concept of “dual citizenship” – the idea that the 14th Amendment only guaranteed national civil rights, not state civil rights; effectively limited the scope of 14th Amendment due process protections

Civil Rights cases (1883) – the Court further weakened the 14th Amendment by declaring that it protected only against government infringement of rights, not private infringement (i.e., private businesses could still discriminate against blacks)

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) – ruled segregation legal as long as facilities were “separate but equal” – not overturned until Brown v. Board of Education in 1954

two views of progress
Two Views of Progress

Booker T. Washington, a former slave and the founder of Tuskegee Institute, argued that blacks would only gain acceptance by white society through education and hard work; patterned after his own life experience

Equality must first come on socio-economic terms and political equality would follow; a popular approach with white Americans

W.E.B. DuBois,a northern intellectual, argued that blacks must achieve political equality first before socio-economic equality would be fully achieved

His approach was widely adopted by civil rights leaders in the 1950s/1960s

DuBois helped to lead the Niagara movement and founded the NAACP