Biology Competency Test Review. Review of important information; Student should referred to notes for more thorough information. Science (inquiry). A search for evidence in order to answer questions or problems.
Biology Competency Test Review Review of important information; Student should referred to notes for more thorough information.
Science (inquiry) A search for evidence in order to answer questions or problems
Observation, identification, description, and explanation of natural phenomena. Science
Observable facts or events in the world around us. Natural phenomena
Since multiple possible solutions • Observations ( using 5 senses-sight, touch, smell, sound &taste) • Collect data • Ask questions • Investigate
Choose solution • Research information from many sources • Eliminate solutions that use data that cannot be verified or supported by evidence • Recognize data that is biased.
Experimental Design/Scientific Method • SCIENTIFIC METHOD steps in logically solving problems;may begin with clearly stating problem you are trying to solve. • Once establish question-you can make "educated prediction"-HYPOTHESIS. Established through reasoning • Inductive reasoning-made based on observations (every time throw ball up, come down::every time throw ball up it will come down) • Deductive reasoning-general truths (Newton's law of gravity, if throws up up it it will come down) • Process of testing-EXPERIMENTAL DESiGN
Steps of the Scientific Method • Observation- see or notice something no one else has • Problem- identify the problem or ask a question (what is it you need to find out? • Research the problem-check books, scientific papers, etc. (what is already know? • Hypothesis- tentative explanation that can be formally tested. States how the independent variable (what testing) will affect dependent variable (what you are measuring). • Independent (manipulated variable) -the factor changed (variable testing) • Dependent variable (responding variable)- variable measured
Steps of the Scientific Method • Experimental Design • List procedures and material • Identify experimental CONTROLS (unchanged factors) • Groups (who?) • Experimental group-getting the variable tested • Control group-group not getting the variable testing (comparison) • Data-observe and record results with charts, lists,graphs, etc. Quantitative (numerical) verses Qualitative (observations) • (Graph data- visual comparison between independent and dependent variables. • X axis-independent variable, Y-axis- dependent variable;title and labels • Line(show how dependent responds by independent), bar (comparison), and pie(100%)
Steps of the Scientific Method • Analyze-predict trends and see if data supports hypothesis. • CONCLUSION-based on data; describe how independent variable affected dependent variable • Did you data support hypothesis • Report results
Notes • Valid results use multiple subjects and test trials • Practice safety • List of materials must include everything you need to complete experiment. • Procedure must include every step • Make table to organize and record data. • Use mathematics to interpret data and graph the results of data
Math for science. Why are we integrating subjects ? • Metric conversions • Based on power of 10s • Uses prefixes and symbols • Same all over the world • 1cc=1ml=1cm3
SI Measurements • Length-distance from one point to another • Mass-Amount of matter • Weight-measurement of gravitational force • Volume-amount of space occupied by an object. • Graduated cylinder-measures volume of liquid • Meniscus-curve of liquid at its surface • Water displacement-way to measure volume of irregular objects • Density- measurement of how closely packed matter is within a given space (D= M/V) g/m3 or kg/m3 • Temperature –measure of how hot or cole
Significant figures • All non-zero are always significant • All zeroes between non-zeroes are ALWAYS significant • Trailing zeros are significant ONLY if the number contains a decimal point • Space holding zeroes for number less than one are NOT significant • For numbers expressed in scientific notation, ignore the exponent and apply above rules.
Characteristics of life • Cellular organization • Unicellular- one called • Multi-cellular-many cells • Organized Cells( blood, brain, etc.)>Tissues(cardiac, bone marrow, etc.)>Organ(heart, femur, etc)>Systems (circulatory, skeletal, etc)>Organisms • Reproduction • Asexual-one parent;genetically identical • Sexual-two parents;genetic diversity • Metabolism • Energy required for life processes • Autotrophs-self feeders (make own food) • Heterotrophs- eat other organisms for energy
Characteristics of life • Homeostasis-body balance; regulation of body conditions • Heredity • DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) genetic material that codes for proteins of all organisms; genetic code is universal • Sensitivity- respond to stimuli- respond to biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) factor in the environment. • Growth-increase in the amount of living matter either by cell division or cell enlargement • Development- any change from conception to death-embryonic, aging, puberty • Adaptation-structures, behaviors or processes that aid in an organisms survival are passed from parent to offspring. • Evolution-change over time; descent with modification
Life Processes • Nutrition-use of nutrients by an organisms • Digestion-process that breaks large food molecules into forms that can be used by the cell. • Absorption-Ability of the cell to take in nutrients, water, gases and other substances from their surroundings. • Transport-the movement of nutrients, water, gases and other substances into and out of cell. • Biosynthesis-the cellular process of building new chemical compounds for the purpose of growth, repair and reproduction. • Secretion- release of substance from a cell • Respiration-release of energy form chemical breakdown of compounds within cell.
Life Processes • Excretion-ability of cell to rid itself of waste products. • Response-the ability of a cell to react to stimuli from its environment. • Reproduction- the process of fission in which one cell divides to from two identical cells. • Photosynthesis-the cellular process in which a plant makes food from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from the sun.
Cell • Cell- structural and functional unit of all organisms • Organelles (little organs) – small, specialized cellular subunits, separated by membranes • Help cell move • Create and store energy • Store information • Many other functions
Cell theory • All living things are made of cells • All cells come from other living cells of the same kind • Cells are the basic units of all living things • MODERN Cell Theory-Cells contain heredity information which passed on from cell to cell during division.
Cell Types • Prokaryotic-Cell does not have true nucleus (ex. Bacteria) • Eukaryotic-has a nucleus surrounded by a nuclear membrane. (ex. Plant and animal cells)
Specialize parts • Centrioles-Animal cells only-cell reproduction • Cilia and flagella-Animal cells only-cell movement and movement of other material • Cell wall –Plants only-rigid membrane around cell (shape and support) • Plastids- Plants only-chloroplasts, etc. • Vacuole-majority of the cell. Storage, water
Basic Chemistry • Element-matter composed of atoms that all have the same atomic number (protons); Naturally occurring approximately 92 • Atom-the smallest component of an element that still has properties of the element; consisting of a positively charted nucleus surrounded by a charged cloud of electrons (+ and – attracted) • Proton (+) particle in the nucleus with a positive charge (+1) and an atomic mass number of 1 dalton • Electron (-) negatively charged particle (-1) with a mass of 1/2000 that of a proton. • Neutron (non-charged) particle with the same mass as a proton. • Isotope-atoms with the same number of protons and electrons, but different number of neutrons. • Isomers-Same chemical formula, different arrangement of atoms
Basic Chemistry • Atomic Number = Number of protons • Atomic Mass= Number of protons and Neutrons • Valence electrons-Number of electrons surrounding the nucleus • Molecule-smallest unit of most compounds that displays all the properties of that compound • Compound-substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
Bonds-force that binds atoms together (how electrons are shared) • Intramolecular Forces-forces found b/w atoms in single molecule • Covalent-sharing electrons (caring is sharing, love in covalent); non-metal to non-metal; form molecules • Polar covalent bonds-attraction not equal (water) • Non-polar covalent bonds-atoms equal attract and share electrons • Ionic-atoms become stable by giving up or gaining electrons (all about I); metals and non-metals; form ions • Metallic bonds (metal and metal) • Intermolecular Forces—forces found b/w molecules; weak • Hydrogen bonds-bond between hydrogen of one molecule and an negatively charged end of a different molecule; cohesions • Van der Waals Forces-attraction b/w molecules; adhesion
BONDS • SINGLE-EACH ATOMS SHARES ONE OF IT ELECTRONS • DOUBLE-EACH OF THE TWO BONDING ATOMS SHARES TWO OF ITS ELECTRONS • TRIPLE-EACH OF THE TWO BONDING ATOMS SHARES THREE OF ITS ELECTRONS.
WATER • POLAR-UNEQUAL SHARING OF ELECTRONS; OXYGEN IS ATTRACTING MORE ELECTRONS THAT THE HYDROGEN ATOMS • OXYGEN SLIGHTLY NEGATIVE; HYDROGEN SLIGHTLY POSITIVE • POLARITY COMES FROM HYDROGEN BOND (ATTRACTION OF POLAR ENDS OF WATER MOLECULES; NEGATIVE END ATTRACTS POSITIVE END) • HYDROGEN BONDS ARE NOT CHEMICAL BONDS; THEY AR E ATTRACTION OF FORCES (ELECTRONS NOT TRANSFERRED OR SHARED) • HEAT CAPACITY – ENERGY REQUIRED TO RAISE THE TEMPERATURE BY 1 DEGREE CELSIUS • WATER LARGE HEAT CAPACITY • RELEASE OR ABSORBS LOT OFHEAT W/O CHANGING TEMP • ORGANISMS WITH LARGE AMOUNTS OF WATER HAVE MORE STABLE TEMPS. • Unique-expands as it gets colder
WATER • COHESION-WATER ATTRACTED TO WATER • CAUSED BY HYDROGEN BONDS • RESPONSIBLE FOR SURFACE TENSION • IMPORTANT FOR PLANTS • CAPILLARY ACTION-DESCRIBES HOW WATER MOVES UP XYLEM IN PLANTS • KEEPS WATER MOLECULES INTACT • ADHESION-WATER ATTRACTED TO OTHER SUBSTANCES • RESPONSIBLE FOR MENISCUS • IMPORTANT FOR PLANTS • ATTACHES WATER TO XYLEM WALLS
WATER-OUR UNIVERSAL SOLVENT • POLARITY ALLOWS IT TO DISSOLVE MOST SOLUTES • MIXTURE-MATERIAL COMPOSED OF TWO OR MOVRE ELEMENTS OR COMPOUNDS THAT ARE PHYSICALLY MIXED TOGETHER BUT NOT CHEMICALLY COMBINED • SOLUTE-SUBSTANCE DISSOLVED IN A SOLUTION • SOLVENT-DISSOLVING SUBSTANCE • SOLUTION-MIXTURE IN WHICH ALL COMPONENTS ARE EVENLY DISTRIBUTED • SUSPENSION-MIXTURE OF WATER AND NON-DISSOLVED MATERIALS
Water transport medium • Blood plasma is about 90 % water • Minerals and ions are dissolved in blood, making water necessary for nutrient transport • Necessary for nutrient transport in plants
pH • pH SCALE-Scale with values from 0-14, used to measure concentrations of H+ ions in a solution • Acid-compounds that form Hydrogen (H+) ions in a solution; pH less than 7 • Base-compounds that form Hydroxide (OH-) ions in a solution; pH greater than 7 • Buffer- Compounds that prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
All organisms are made of chemical compounds; All use chemical compounds for life processes Chemical Compounds
COMMON ELEMENTS IN ORGANISMS : 96% of life • CARBON, HYDROGEN (most by number), OXYGEN (most by weight) AND NITROGEN MOST COMMON (CHO FAMILY0 • 20-25% OF LIVING MASS • ORGANISMS REQUIRE 25 OF 92 NATURALLY OCCURRING ELEMENTS TO SURVIVE • HYDROGEN-FORMS ONE COVALENT BOND • OXYGEN-FORMS TWO COVALENT BONDS • CARBON-FORMS FOUR COVALENT BONDS; CHAINS, BRANCHES,AND RINGS
Organic Molecules/Compounds Carbon containing compounds that can be very large macromolecules
Forming Macromolecules • Monomer-single sub unit; combine to form polymers • Polymer-molecule formed by smaller subunits; macromolecules built by dehydration synthesis/condensation reactions (water formed, polymer formed) • Hydrolysis-water splits to break polymers
Classes of macromolecules found in living things: • Carbohydrates (CHO, saccharides, 1:2:1 Ratio) • Sugars/glucose and starches; Quick energy • Eg. Cellulose (plant cell wall) • Lipids (CHO, fatty acids attached to glycerol) • Fats, oils, waxes; store high energy • Found cell membrane • Saturated (filled with hydrogens, no double bonds b/w carbons) and unsaturated (has double bonds-room for more hydrogens) • Proteins (CHON, Amino Acids) • Most structures of the body • Eg. Hormones and Enzymes (work on specific areas called substrates to speed up chemical reactions; specific pH and optimal temperature range-outside conditions do not work) • Nucleic Acids (CHON + P, nucleotides) • Contain organisms genetic information for making proteins • Eg. DNA (replication) and RNA( translation)
Cell Transport • Passive transport (no energy required) • Diffusion – movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to area of lower concentration. • Osmosis – movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration to lower concentration. • Isotonic – water moves in and out of cell at equal rates • Hypotonic – (O) water concentration higher outside;::moves into the cell; cell swells and can burst • Hypertonic - water concentration higher inside cell:: move out of cell; cell shrinks • Facilitated diffusion- movement of substance though the membrane via a transport protein channel. • Active transport ( ATP Required); movement from an area of LOW concentration to high concentration • Endocytosis (enter cell)- pinocytosis (liquids) and phagocytosis (solids) • Exocytosis (exit cell) waste
Energy Transfer Photosynthesis-plants only Cellular Respiration- plants and animals Process by which organisms break down glucose (food) and release its energy Energy stored in ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) Adenine (Nitrogen base) Ribose (5-C sugar) 3 phosphate groups (high energy) ATP/ADP cycle-when energy is needed to do work a phosphate group is released to form ADP Overall equation- c6H12O6 + 6O2 > 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38 ATP • Producers use sunlight to convert chemical energy into glucose • 6CO2 + 6H2O > C6H12O6 + 6O2 • Large number of chloroplast (site of photosynthesis) found in mesophyll cells • Pigments absorb light energy • Light Rxn • Input- water and light • Output- O2 , ATP, NADPH • Dark Rxn • Input-ATP, CO2, and NADPH • Output-Glucose
Cellular Respiration Aerobic Anaerobic NO Oxygen required Few organisms (bacteria/yeast) 2 ATP 2 Steps Glycolysis Fermentation Alcohol Lactic Acid • Oxygen required • Most organisms • 38 ATP • 3 Steps • Glycolysis (sugar splitting) • Kreb cycle • ETC (most energy made)
Chemosynthesis Some forms of bacteria make energy from inorganic chemicals
Rate of photosynthesis • Affected by color and intensity of light and temperature • Measured rate of photosynthesis by measuring the amount of oxygen bubbles given off in a test tube under light.
Reproduction • Fundamental characteristic of life • Propagates your species • 2 forms asexual and sexual
Asexual and Sexual Asexual Sexual reproduction 2 parents (usually) Fusion of gametes Genetic Diversity Slower, more energy , less efficient Changing environment Strategies Internal fertilization External fertilizations (Spawning –eggs and sperm released into the environment (aquatic) • 1 parent • No gametes • Offspring genetically identical to parents • Fast, efficient, less energy • No variation • Stable environment • Strategies • Binary fission-Cell divides in half • Budding- New organism forms off side of adult and drops off.
Cell Division • Haploid (1 set of chromosomes), gametes, sperm/egg • Diploid (2 sets of chromosomes), body cells, one from mom & one from dad • Cell Cycle • Interphase- G1 , S Phase (DNA synthesized), G2 ; longest phase of cycle • Mitosis (PMAT); tissue repair and growth • Prophase-DNA Coils • Metaphase-Lines up in middle • Anaphase- pairs separate and heading to poles • Telophase-changes from prophase reversed • Meiosis (PMAT2) Reproductive division; Fertilization occurs 2 sets of info • Crossing over-creates genetic diversity • Cytokinesis-cytoplasm division
DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis • DNA and RNA made of nucleotides (Nitrogen base, sugar and phosphate backbone)
Replication • Process used by cells to copy DNA-enzyme unzips DNA and each side of ladder acts as a template for the building of new half • Base Pair rule • AT • GC • EX TACGGAC (old strand) ATGCCTG (new strand)
Protein Synthesis • Transcription-making RNA from DNA • EX TACGGAC (template DNA strand) AUGCCUG (RNA built) • 3 types of RNA involved in protein synthesis • mRNA-MESSENGER- blue print for how to build a protein; transcription • tRNA-TRANSFER- carries amino acid to ribosome; translation • rRNA-RIBOSOMAL- makes ribosomes when mRNA attaches to ribosome • Translation-process of building a protein by matching Codons in mRNA to anticodons of tRNA
Heredity-passing traits from parents to offspring. • Genes-segments of the DNA in the chromosome that carry the information for the traits of an organisms such as eye color, height, etc.; genes in pairs (one mom, one dad)-each member of the pair is called allele. • Dominant-trait stronger/expressed; Recessive-trait weaker, masked (still carried) • Genotype- Alleles carried • Homozygous Dominant-2 dominant alleles (TT) • Homozygous Recessive-2 recessive alleles (tt) –ONLY WAY OFFSPRING WILL EXPRESS RECESSIVE TRAIT • Heterozygous-1 dominant allele and one recessive allele (Tt) • Phenotype-physically look like. Brown hair, tall, etc