Division of Air Quality Ambient Monitoring. Donnie Redmond. Section Chief. May 7, 2014. Topics to be Covered. Ambient Monitoring Why do we do it? Who determines how many to operate? How do we decide where to put them? What do monitors look like? (Pictures!) Issues on the Horizon.
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Division of Air Quality Ambient Monitoring Donnie Redmond Section Chief May 7, 2014
Topics to be Covered • Ambient Monitoring • Why do we do it? • Who determines how many to operate? • How do we decide where to put them? • What do monitors look like? (Pictures!) • Issues on the Horizon
Ambient Monitoring: Why? • EPA requirements • Highest concentrations • Population exposure • Background • Research • Public health effects re pollutant levels • To better understand control strategies • Public interest
Ambient Monitoring: What? • EPA regulations lay out minimum requirements • Number of monitors • Where to locate them • How long to operate them • Different rules for each pollutant • Same standards apply across the nation
Example: Ozone requirements • Any metro area (MSA) with 350,000 people • Must have at least one ozone monitor • If >85% of the standard, must have two • Any MSA with at least 50,000 people • Must have a monitor if >85% of standard • At least one monitor in each area must be for maximum concentration
Ozone monitoring req’ts (cont.) • Eight NC metro areas have >350,000 people • Charlotte, Raleigh, Durham, Greensboro, Winston-Salem, Asheville, Hickory, Fayetteville • Each must have at least one monitor • Second monitor required if near ozone standard • Seven other MSAs with 50,000-350,000 people • Wilmington, Greenville, Rocky Mount, Jacksonville, Goldsboro, Burlington, New Bern • One monitor required if >85% of standard • 85% of the standard (75ppb) is ~64 ppb
Ozone monitoring req’ts (cont.) • Other considerations • Additional monitors may help reduce the size of a nonattainment area • Rural monitors may help determine transport of pollution • Number of required ozone monitors can add up quickly!
Other pollutants • PM2.5 • Population and pollutant concentration • NO2 • Population and traffic volume • SO2 • Population and emissions weighted index • Lead • Emissions-based • CO • No population-based requirements • Additional background monitors in support of PSD permitting
Ambient Monitoring: Who? • Statewide network • Regional office staff operates the monitors • Electronics calibration/repair shop in Raleigh • Two labs in Raleigh • Central office does QA, SOPs, and reporting • Local programs • Mecklenburg, Forsyth, Western NC • Cherokee tribe • Federal agencies also operate monitors in NC
Site Characteristics • Must meet EPA requirements, including • Distance from trees, buildings, roads • Nearby emissions sources • Prevailing wind direction • Height of sample probe above ground • Other considerations • Safety of technicians (traffic, terrain) • Access to power and phone • Cost to use site (free is good!) • Co-located with other instruments
Quality Assurance requirements • Chemists/statisticians review, validate, and report all the data • Calibrations • Power failures • “Exceptional events”, i.e., fires • Monitor performance issues • Temperature, humidity, leaks • Insects, varmints • Completeness
Issues on the Horizon • New ozone standard (2015) • Could require monitors in smaller metro areas • Could extend the ozone monitoring season • SO2 source-oriented monitoring (2016) • Major concerns regarding resources and logistics • Introduction of new high tech sensing devices • Citizens can take real-time local measurements
Questions? Donnie Redmond Ambient Monitoring Section Chief 919-707-8468 firstname.lastname@example.org References • 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix D • DAQ website • http://www.ncair.org/