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2 H 2 + O 2 → 2 H 2 O. +. Identify the factors that could affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Use the Collision Theory to explain the factors influencing the rate of a reaction. Explain the effect these factors have on the shape of a kinetic energy distribution curve.

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Identify the factors that could affect the rate of a chemical reaction.

  • Use the Collision Theory to explain the factors influencing the rate of a reaction.
  • Explain the effect these factors have on the shape of a kinetic energy distribution curve.
slide3

Factors Affecting Reaction Rates

  • temperature
  • concentration or pressure of a reactant
  • surface area (particle size)
  • presence/absence of a catalyst.
  • nature of the reactants
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Effect of Particle Size (surface area)

Rate of reaction increases with increased surface area(crushing, grinding) .

More particles involved, more frequent collisions.

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Effect of Concentration

Rate of reaction increases with increased concentration (mol/L) of particles.

Moreparticles with activation energy -

more chances of a successful collision.

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Effect of Pressure

Only affects reaction rates of gaseous reactions.

Rate of reaction increases with decreased volume of the container - mimics higher [ ].

Closer particles – more chance of collisions.

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Effects of a Temperature Change

Rate of reaction increases with increased temperature.

MoreKEperparticles – more frequentcollisions and moreEA.

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Effect of the Nature of Reactants

1. Comparing reactions with similar compounds:

Less bonds to break, faster the reaction.

2 NO(g) + O2(g) → 2 NO2(g)

2 C8H18(g) + 25 O2(g) → 16 CO2(g) + 18 H2O(g)

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2. Comparing reactions with similar bond numbers:

Covalent bonds takes longer to break than aqueous.

(aq) are already separated into ions, so are instantaneous.

H2(g) + I2(g) → 2 HI(g)

KNO3(aq) + NaI(aq) → KI(aq) + 2 NaNO3(aq)

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3. Comparing similar compounds and similar bond

numbers:

(g) faster> (l) > (s)

  • Stronger IMF to overcome
  • Less KE per particle
  • Less collisions
  • Less Surface area
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Effect of Catalysts

A catalyst speeds up or starts a reaction by lowering the activation energy.

  • Does not alter products or ΔH.
  • Not involved in the overall chemical reaction
  • Appears unchanged.

Enzymes are known as biological catalysts.

An inhibitor is the opposite of a catalyst.

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Things that increase reaction rate:

  • increased surface area
  • increased concentration
  • increased pressure
  • increased temperature
  • fewer bonds, aqueous or gas states
  • catalyst

To decrease reaction rate - do the opposite....