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CHAPTER THREE
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CHAPTER THREE

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  1. CHAPTER THREE 3-PLANNING PROCESS 3.1 Integrated project planning 3-2The work breakdown structure 3-3 Network Logic (CPM) 3.4 Estimating fundamentals :Time, cost and budget 3.5 Scheduling : Gantt chart and PERT 3-6 OUTPUTS Summary key points Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi 1

  2. 3.1 Integrated project planningModule Overview Planning Process : why plan? Project plan : what inside? Integrated project planning model Managing the change to the plan Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  3. The Planning Process Parker’s Proverb Planning is like insurance. It’s too expensive until you need it, and then it’s too late. Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  4. Why plan? Why would you not plan? As much or as little as you need to demonstrate to stakeholders that you have thought of everything, and have a plan to get there. . Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  5. Why plan? Why would you not plan? The better we plan, the better we can execute on time and within budget to meet customer expectations and organizational objectives. Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  6. Why plan? • To manage Project we need constructing a model • The model can be simple or complex • The Triple constraint ( time, cost, performance) is a simple three element model of a project system Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  7. What is in a project plan? Your plan may include: • Introduction • Overview, • Deliverables, • Constraints, • Definitions Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  8. What is in a project plan? Your plan may include: • Management structure • Project reporting, • Communication Plan, • Risk Management, • Change management Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  9. What is in a project plan? Your plan may include: • Planning • Activity schedule • Resource identification, • Resource allocation • Project Charter, • Quality Assurance Plan, • Test and/or Training plans, • Implementation Plan. Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  10. Building a Foundation for Success • If the problem is poorly defined — limit scope and work to defining it! • If the solution is not clear — limit scope and work to analyzing options and recommending one! Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  11. PLANNING PROCESS • In the early phases: this is preparing the Project Management Plan and defining exactly what will happen. • In later phases : it is ensuring that the earlier planning is still valid, and incorporating any changes in resources or contingencies arising. Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi 11

  12. Planning Process Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  13. Planning Process Activities in this group are: Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  14. Project Planning • The project planning process consists of the following. This a basic description of the steps: 1.Setting the project start date 2. Setting the project completion date 3. Selecting the project methodology or project life cycle to be used Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi 14

  15. Project Planning 4.Determining the scope of the project in terms of the phases of the selected project methodology or project life cycle 5.Identifying any predetermined interim milestone or other critical dates which must be met. 6.Listing tasks, by project phase, in the order in which they might be accomplished. Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi 15

  16. Project Planning 7. Estimating the personnel necessary to accomplish each task 8. Estimating the personnel available to accomplish each task 9. Determining skill level necessary to perform each task 10. Determining task dependencies- Which tasks can be done in parallel- Which tasks require the completion of other tasks before they can start Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi 16

  17. Concept Phase Design Phase Const. Phase Start End Start End Start Scope Work Planning Is Done Phase by Phase Problem Concept Documents Design Documents Project Plan Updated Project Plan Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  18. Integrated Project planning • Integration is a process of synthesizing different concepts into a unified Whole • Project management is primarily an interactive activity: • Most product failure is at the interface of subsystems • The biggest complaint of people in projects is poor communications • Senior managers expect PM taking a strategic and holistic perspective on the project • We adopt the model published by the Project Management Institute Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  19. Integrated Project planningPMI model SCOPE PROCUR- EMENT TIME Project Planning COST Risk COMMUNI-CATION QUALITY HUMAN RESOURCES Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi The team performs integration with respect to the other knowledge area

  20. 3-2 Work Breakdown StructureModule Overview Definition The elements of a WBS WBS structure 6 steps to develop a WBS Tips and tricks Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  21. Work Breakdown Structure Abram’s Advice When eating an elephant, take one bite at a time. Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  22. Work Break Down structure WBS • A definition • Awork breakdown structure(WBS) is a hierarchic decomposition or breakdown of a project or major activity into successive levels, in which each level is a finer breakdown of the preceding one. • The WBS may be drawn in a diagrammatic form (if automated tools are available) or in a chart resembling an outline. Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi 22

  23. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • A structured definition of all the work of a project: • The things we have to do. • The documents we have to produce. • Any other tangible items we have to create. • The WBS includes both management work and technical work. Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  24. Thesaurus (3) • Deliverables may also be called: • Sub-deliverables  Cost accounts • Outputs Significant • Work packages accomplishments • Activities may also be called: • Tasks • Work packages • Collectively, they are called work-items. Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  25. Using the WBS • Activities will be used as inputs to: • Effort and cost estimating • Sequencing and scheduling • Deliverables may be used as: • Scheduling milestones • Progress measurement check points Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  26. WBS Organized byKey Component My New House Project Management Residential Structure Swimming Pool … … … Foundation Framing Finish Work … … … … Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  27. WBS Organizedby Phase New Product Project Management Requirements Document User Acceptance … … … Start-up Meeting Interview Notes Report … … … … Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  28. WBS For project phases • The first WBS level for the life cycle would be: Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi 28

  29. WBS — Tips & Tricks • Decompose as much as you can now; revisit detail as needed. • Remember to include a branch for project management! • Characteristics of the lowest level: • One clear owner • Able to estimate effort and duration Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  30. Tips & Tricks (cont’d) • Developing a WBS can be a real challenge if: • You don’t understand the scope. • The scope is poorly defined. • The activities (lowest level) should be the same regardless of how the deliverables (upper levels) are organized. Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  31. Sample: WBS of wastewater plant Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  32. Exercise: WBS (1) • Follow the “Six Simple Steps” to develop a WBS on the slide for your group project: • Use sticky-notes to capture the information. • Generate detail for one branch at a time. • Document additional assumptions as appropriate. • Try to develop 2 or 3 levels Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  33. Exercise: WBS (2) • Document your lessons learned: • About the project you were planning. • About developing a WBS. Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  34. Summary of Key Points There is no “one right way” to construct a work breakdown structure. AWOW — all the work and only the work. Post-Its really help! Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  35. 3-3Network LogicModule Overview Basic sequencing terminology Common errors to avoid Tips and tricks Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  36. Network DiagramsActivity scheduling • The most popular method is called Activity on Node or activity on Arrow. • The task (activity) is represented by a node or Arrow, which also shows the time expected. • Take the list of tasks from your Work Breakdown Structure • Determine any tasks that depend on other tasks. • Attach resources to each task (people cannot do two jobs at once). • Determine the timeline for the project. Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  37. Activity-on-Arrow Network Fundamentals Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi 37

  38. Sequencing Terminology Subnet = Design Activities Activity C Activity A Milestone Req’ts Done Design Done Activity D Activity B • Dependency • B is predecessor • E is successor Activity E Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  39. Exercise: Basic Concepts Working in teams, create a network logic diagram for the breakfast “project” on the next slide. Assume unlimited resources and use finish-to-start dependencies. Sequence the activities as shown but note any problems, issues, or assumptions. Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  40. Exercise : Breakfast Project Juice — get glass, get juice from fridge, pour juice, put glass with juice on table. Coffee — get coffee pot, fill pot with water, put coffee in pot, make coffee, get cup from cabinet, pour coffee, put cup with coffee on table. Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  41. 3-4 Estimating Fundamentalstime, cost and budgetModule Overview • What do we estimate and why? • The estimating process Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  42. Estimating Drive Time Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  43. What Do We Estimate? • Effort — labor units required to complete an assignment; usually hours of a person’s time. • Duration — work periods required to complete an assignment. • Elapsed time — calendar periods required to complete an assignment. • Cost — monetary value of labor, materials, and contracts. Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  44. The Estimating Process : Factors to consider • Planning Horizon : the quality estimates of the current events are close to 100% accurate but are reduced for more distant events. • Long duration Project increases uncertainty in estimates • A new technology : implementing a new technology with a poor written scope specifications result in errors in estimating Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  45. The Estimating Process : Factors to consider 1-People : • Accuracy of estimates depends on the skills of people making the estimates • How people skills are near to the work to do? • Team harmony ? 2-Project Structure : the type of project structure chosen influence time and cost estimates ( Example : a dedicated project team is speedy but costly as a permanent structure) Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  46. The Estimating Process : Factors to consider 3-Other non-project factors : Holidays, legal limits 4- Responsibility: estimates should be done by persons most familiar with the task 5-Delphi estimating Method : Use several persons to estimate and find consensus 6-Time unit : specific time units to use should be selected early in the development phase 7-Adding risk assessment to the estimates : help to avoid surprises to stakeholders Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  47. The Estimating Process Review • Define and document: • Work to be done (based on scope) • Assumptions (about scope or work) • Range of possible outcomes • Relevant supporting detail • Review and revise as necessary Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  48. Effort Estimates andProject Budgets Rules are made for the guidance of wise folk and the obedience of fools. Anonymous Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  49. Module Overview • Costing : some approaches • Converting estimates into budgets • Cost reserves • Getting your budget approved Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi

  50. Costing The easiest way to cost the project is to take the WBS and estimate the costs of each activity. Other considerations include capital costs, disbursements, costs of delays, contingencies. Prepared by Pr Sulayman Alyahya-Pr Abdelghani Toumi