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Imperialism and Entering the World Stage. A.P. U.S. History Mr. Krueger. Towards Empire. Expansion of 1890’s differed from previous American expansions: Economics – Desire for new markets and raw materials Military – Desire for naval bases and coaling stations

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imperialism and entering the world stage

Imperialism and Entering the World Stage

A.P. U.S. History

Mr. Krueger

towards empire
Towards Empire
  • Expansion of 1890’s differed from previous American expansions:
    • Economics – Desire for new markets and raw materials
    • Military – Desire for naval bases and coaling stations
    • Ideological – Desire to bring Christianity, western-style culture, and democracy to other people
  • Isolationism declines, and internationalism rose because of the increase in technology.
  • Imperialism was not popular at the onset of the 1870’s, but would eventually come to the forefront of American Politics.
reasons for expansion
Reasons for Expansion
  • End of the Frontier – diminishing opportunities at home.
  • New Markets
  • Trade – Exports
    • 1870 - $395 million
    • 1890 - $858 million
    • 1900 - $1.4 billion
  • Nationalism leads to Imperialism
    • Intellectuals based expansion on ideas from Charles Darwin – the fit would triumph.
    • Biogenic Law – German biologist Ernst Haeckel – Advanced Races would conquer and protect Primitive Races
    • Sense of Anglo – Saxon superiority and natural selection abound
  • Foreign Policy
    • Still based on Monroe Doctrine
    • William Henry Seward wanted to expand throughout the Western Hemisphere
  • Focus on Latin America and Hawaii
hawaii and samoa
Hawaii and Samoa
  • Naval Bases and Hawaiian Sugar
  • McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the sugar production in Hawaii – gave American producers two-cents a pound on Hawaiian exports.
  • Queen Liliuokalani declared a new constitution to help her people and many natives were given rights.
  • American residents revolted and asked the U.S. for help – the marines were sent. 3 days later the Queen surrendered. Hawaii was annexed to the U.S.
  • Debates about the annexation – U.S. to “civilize and Christianize” the Hawaiians
war with spain
War with Spain
  • Shaped all levels of American Society
    • Nationalism and Identity
    • North and South Reconciled after Civil War
    • Emerged as a world power
    • Created an Empire
    • Left some doubt…
  • Cuba was a remnant of Spain’s great empire – rebels fought against Spanish control
    • With the depression, a revolt broke out and many tried to sway American opinion to help the Cuban rebels.
    • Rebels used a hit and run, and scorched earth policy.
    • Spain tried to systematically wipe them out. When this did not work, Spain sent General ValerianoWeyler y Nicolau – he used “reconcentration” camps – thousands enter, 1/3rd die
yellow journalism
Yellow Journalism
  • Yellow Journalism – sensationalist reporting, named after the “Yellow Kid,” a popular comic strip that was used
    • William Randolph Hearst - Published the New York Journal
    • Joseph Pulitzer – Published the New York World
    • Both Supported the Cuban Rebels and used biased sources to sell more papers
causes for war
Causes for War
  • American anger over the treatment of Cubans
  • The outrage over the de Lome Letter, a letter written by Enrique Dupuy, Spain’s minister to the United States.
  • The sinking of the Maine off of Havana Harbor – February 15, 1898
    • Blew up and killed 260 soldiers – Spain took the blame.
  • Teller Amendment – promise that the U.S. had no intention of annexing Cuba.
mechanics of the war
Mechanics of the War
  • The first time the United States fought as one after the Civil War…
  • North and South together with African American troops
  • Many Volunteers join because of Nationalism
  • Troops were poorly supplied, but the war did not last long…
road to war 1898
Road to War…1898
  • The Philippines – the start of the war
    • Spain held the islands since 1500
  • The United States Navy was led by Commodore George Dewey
  • The United States had the advantage of modern technology, iron and steel hulls, and superior weapons.
    • Quickly overwhelmed the Spanish.
  • No American Casualties, 400 Spanish died
war in the philippines
War in the Philippines
  • Dewey began to plan an attack on the capital of Manila
  • Aided by Emilio Aguinaldo – Leader of a rebel army of Filipino patriots
  • Helped Americans capture Manila
  • Spanish Forces in the Philippines surrendered on August 14, 1898.
the war moves to cuba
The War moves to Cuba
  • The Rough Riders – Volunteer Calvary lead by Theodore Roosevelt. Composed of college athletes, cowboys, ranchers, and miners.
  • Battle of San Juan Hill
  • Battle of Santiago – U.S. Victory – July 3, 1898
outcome
Outcome
  • U.S. Victory – Annexation of the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam.
  • The war cost the United States $250 Million and about 2,000 soldiers died, not from combat but from YELLOW FEVER.
  • Creation of an Imperialist United States and a presence on the World Stage.
progressivism a review in progress
Progressivism – A Review in Progress
  • Progressivism – movement started to address the problems created by industrialization.
  • Muckrakers – journalists who

exposed the filth of society

fighting bob la follette
“Fighting Bob” La Follette
  • Housing Reforms
    • Tenement Act of 1901
  • Work reforms
    • Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
  • Government Reforms
    • Robert La Follette
    • Wisconsin Idea:
    • policy to apply the expertise of the state's university to social legislation that benefited all the state's citizens
    • It led to classic programs such as regulation of utilities, workers' compensation, tax reform, and university extension services
t r president roosevelt
T.R. – President Roosevelt
  • Bully Pulpit – a powerful platform to publicize important issues and seek support for his policies. HANDS ON POLITICS
  • Square Deal
    • Regulating Big Business and Promoting Responsibility
    • Preserving the Natural Resources
    • John Muir – Naturalist, leave Nature alone
    • Gifford Pinchot - Conservationist, use wisely
president wilson
President Wilson
  • The New Freedom – platform that called for tariff reductions, banking reforms, and stronger anti-trust legislations.
  • Graduated Income tax – the more $$ you have, the more taxes you pay.
  • Federal Reserve Act – created a central fund from which banks could borrow to prevent collapse during a financial panic.
  • The 19th Amendment
slide23
Both
  • Reformers
    • Passed Progressive laws to help the U.S.
    • These limited big business
    • Gave rights to the workers
  • Both aided in civil rights, and both had controversial incidents
    • Brownsville Incident – Roosevelt signed papers discharging 167 falsely accused African American soldiers.
    • Wilson opposed federal anti-lynching laws, and allowed cabinet members to segregate their offices.