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Agricultural and rural trajectory of Madagascar ___________ Presentation of Mr. Alain PIERRE BERNARD PowerPoint Presentation
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MADAGASCAR. I. Agricultural and rural trajectory of Madagascar ___________ Presentation of Mr. Alain PIERRE BERNARD. M’Bour, Senegal 11 to 13 April 2006. Plan. 1- Main structural characteristics of the agriculture sector 2- Evolution of agricultural and rural policies

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slide1

MADAGASCAR

I

Agricultural and rural trajectory of Madagascar

___________

Presentation of

Mr. Alain PIERRE BERNARD

M’Bour, Senegal

11 to 13 April 2006

slide2

Plan

1- Main structural characteristics of the agriculture sector

2- Evolution of agricultural and rural policies

3- Perception of the big challenges

1 main structural characteristics of the agricultural sector

1. Main structural characteristics of the agricultural sector

  • 50% of Madagascan population is under 20 years-old
  • 73% of Madagascan population: rural
  • Primary sector: 34 % of GDP
  • Rural population concentrated in certain geographic areas:
  • - Areas of land saturation (High Lands)
  • - Areas potentially exploitable but very little exploited.
1 main structural characteristics of the agricultural sector4

1. Main structural characteristics of the agricultural sector

  • Big diversity of activities in the Island:
  • - Food-producing cultures (Rice: everywhere)
  • - Tropical cultures (Coffee, Vanilla, Litchi…: coastal areas)
  • - Temperate cultures (vegetables and fruits…:High lands)
  • - Extensive farming
  • - Fisheries.
1 main structural characteristics of the agriculture sector

1. Main structural characteristics of the agriculture sector

  • Low productivity:
  • - Technical problems
      • - Low input use
      • - Non-compliance with norms
      • - Low mechanization
  • Agriculture is often little monetarized in the inner country.
1 main structural characteristics of the agriculture sector6

1. Main structural characteristics of the agriculture sector

  • 50% of exports and 9% of imports
  • Main exports :
2 evolution of agricultural and rural policies

2. Evolution of agricultural and rural policies

  • Different periods :
    • Beginning of the 1970s: nationalization
    • Mid-1980s: reforms with the process of structural adjustment
    • Beginning of 1990s: liberalization and disengagement of the State
    • PNDR in DSRP 2003
    • Vision Madagascar naturellement and MAP
    • Decentralization
2 evolution of agricultural and rural policies8

2. Evolution of agricultural and rural policies

  • Past and current processes of structural changes:
    • Processes of structural adjustment in Madagascar
      • Trade liberalization
      • Export sector liberalization
      • Foreign exchange liberalization
      • Foreign and home trade liberalization
      • Pursuit of foreign exchange liberalization (WTO, SADC, COMESA)
      • Existence of preferential markets (APE, AGOA…)
2 evolution of agricultural and rural policies9

2. Evolution of agricultural and rural policies

  • Past and current processes of structural changes:
    • Impacts of the processes
      • Increase of consumer prices without an improvement of the producer prices (except for the rice)
      • Diversification of agricultural products
      • Drop of the place agreed for the traditional export cultures
      • Emergence of non traditional export products (fishing products, essential oils, fruits, vegetables…)
2 evolution of agricultural and rural policies10

2. Evolution of agricultural and rural policies

  • Role of Donors:
    • Financial support in the process of structural adjustment (WB, IMF, EU…)
    • Technical and financial assistances (EU, AFD, SCAC, CTHA, CTHT, USAID, BAMEX...)
    • Development of commercial partnerships (AGOA…)
2 evolution of agricultural and rural policies11

2. Evolution of agricultural and rural policies

  • Local actors:
    • Government: current reflection a driving schema for the development of the agricultural sector - PPIC – LPDR – MCA …
    • Regions: regional plans for development (PRD built in the PRDR) – Communal Plan for Development (PCD)- Program ACORDS…
    • Financial institutions: BOA, BNI, OTIV, CECAM, CIDR, ICAR…
2 evolution of agricultural and rural policies12

2. Evolution of agricultural and rural policies

  • Several intervening parties:
    • Producers
    • Merchants with the intermediate parties
    • Indirect actors: various associations (portage of information, production of seeds…)
    • Authorities: technical services decentralized in regions, communes
    • Consumers
    • Peasants organizations, NGOs, Projects, Researchers…
3 perception of the big challenges

3. Perception of the big challenges

  • Constraints faced by operators:
    • Technical constraints:
      • Low use of inputs
      • Respect of norms
      • Low mechanization
3 perception of the big challenges14

3. Perception of the big challenges

  • Constraints faced by operators :
    • Financial constraints:
      • Weaknesses of the agricultural credit
      • Heavy conditions for granting credits
3 perception of the big challenges15

3. Perception of the big challenges

  • Constraints faced by operators:
    • Organizational problems:

- Weakness of the producers and chain commodities’ organization

    • Weakness of the access to land:

- Few titled areas

- Existence of saturated land areas

    • Weakness of the agricultural services
    • Weak professionalization…
3 perception of the big challenges16

3. Perception of the big challenges

  • Constraints faced by the operators:
    • Commercial constraints:
      • Access to information
      • Regularity of the offer
      • Prospective new markets
      • Normalization
3 perception of the big challenges17

3. Perception of the big challenges

  • Constraints faced by operators:
    • Constraints in logistics and infrastructure
      • Lack and low quality of infrastructures
      • Weakness of the administrative structures
      • Deficit in information and difficulty in accessing it
      • Insufficient and often non adequate scientific and technological research
3 perception of the big challenges18

3. Perception of the big challenges

  • Economic objectives posted in the territory:
    • Continuation of the rural economy towards the industrial economy
    • Increase in agricultural production and agricultural exports
    • Development of the agro-industrial production
3 perception of the big challenges19

3. Perception of the big challenges

  • National program of rural development (PNDR) :
    • To guarantee good governance in the agricultural sector
    • Promotion of diversification and transformation of agricultural products
    • To facilitate access to land capital
    • To increases agricultural productivity
    • To attain international norms on quality to develop agricultural and agro-industrial exports
3 perception of the big challenges20

3. Perception of the big challenges

  • Other big challenges:
    • Management of too many agricultural economically active population
    • Management of the competition of imported products
    • Conquest/re-conquest of export markets, regional (SADC, COMESA, …) and international
3 perception of the big challenges21

3. Perception of the big challenges

  • SYNERGIE OF ALL ACTORS
  • COHERENCE OF POLICIES
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Misaotra tompoko

Merci beaucoup pour votre attention

Muchas gracias

Thank you very much for your attention

Choukran