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Fonder Nathalie (1), Jean Marie Marcoen(2), Dimitri Xanthoulis (3) PowerPoint Presentation
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Fonder Nathalie (1), Jean Marie Marcoen(2), Dimitri Xanthoulis (3)

Fonder Nathalie (1), Jean Marie Marcoen(2), Dimitri Xanthoulis (3)

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Fonder Nathalie (1), Jean Marie Marcoen(2), Dimitri Xanthoulis (3)

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  1. Water Pollution Monitoring Of Nitrates Leaching From Agricultural Fields With Industrial Crop Harvesting Practices. The Belgian Case Of Onsite Lysimeters As A Monitoring Tool. Fonder Nathalie (1), Jean Marie Marcoen(2), Dimitri Xanthoulis (3) (1) Epuvaleau npo, Avenue de la Faculté d’Agronomie, 5030 Gembloux ; fonder@epuvaleau.eu (2) GRENeRA, Geopedology Laboratory, Gembloux Agricultural University, Passage des déportés, 2, 5030 Gembloux ; JM.Marcoen@ulg.ac.be; (3) Gembloux Agricultural University, Department of Hydrology and Rural Hydraulics, Passage des déportés, 2, 5030 Gembloux ; d.xanthoulis@ulg.ac.be

  2. OUTLINES Climate : Cold Temperate, ocean influenced Latitude : 52°N Annual Temperature : 10°C Rainfall : 800-1200 mm/yr Rain Frequency : 200 days/yr

  3. Belgium is a Kingdom with FEDERAL STATE GOV. 3 Communities, corresponding to population groups (language and culture) 3 Regions corresponding to economic autonomy desires (In charge of Agriculture and Water management, amongst other) Federal Government manage Army, Foreign Affairs, Public Health, Justice, Finance, Social Security, etc. 6 Mi Inh Area = 32500 KM2 Pop. 10,5 Mi Inh. Density 315 Inh/Km2 1 Mi Inh 3,5 MI Inh

  4. Context 1991 : European Nitrate Directive (91/676/CEE) aims at moderating or preventing water pollution from nitrates released by agricultural practices 2000 : creation of NITRAWAL, npo as a consortium of 4 partners to provide support to farmers (1 from Water sector, 1 from agricultural sector, 2 scientific partners from Walloon universities – GRENeRA, ECOP) 2002 : Transposition into the Wallon law with the PGDA (Programme de Gestion Durable de l’Azote) / Sustainable Nitrogen Management Program - standards on mineral and organic fertilization rates - agricultural practices code 2005 : Condemnation by EU for non complete transcription - PGDA review process 2007 : New PGDA having impacts on the operation managements by farmers 2003 – now : scientific studies - test the relevance of the environmental indicator defined, - adequacy standards / water quality preservation, - advices on crop rotation and sequences

  5. Material and method

  6. Data collection

  7. Crops rotation above lysimeters implementation

  8. Results for Water Quantity Water Budget : Water collected = Infiltration water In Wallonia : Pluviometry = 100%, Infiltration = 6 to 28% In Lysimeters, Water collected = P + I – ETM (assumption to have a closed lysimeter) P= Pluviometry I = Irrigation ETM= ET * Kc (cultural coefficient) Results obtained over 5 drainage seasons = 12 to 14%

  9. The Walloon Environmental indicator APL APL = Azote Potentiellement Lessivable / Potentially Leachable Nitrogen Issued from the “Survey Surface Agricole” (Agricultural Surface Survey) - 25 farms - total of 220 fields Annual sampling - first at spring, leading to fertilisation rate recommendations - secondly at autumn, to assess residue after harvest Annual APL (Environmental Indicator) is defined per crops and their related acceptable nitrogen residue in the soil after harvest. If above, - penalties for the farmers Lysimeter project : no plots received any negative assessment from the Environmental indicator Nevertheless, high to very high values of nitrate content are observed in lysimeters

  10. Summary Table for Water Quality

  11. Conclusion and recommendation • Lysimeters are reliable to collect representative seepage water amounts • Lysimeters confirm the reliability of APL Environmental Indicator • Unfortunately, respect of legislation ≠ water quality preservation • N management has to be defined over the whole crop rotation sequence and not per individual crops

  12. Conclusion and recommendation • Cereals + inset crop / without OK /non OK • Sugar beet OK • Potato with no winter cover non OK • Any vegetable should have a winter cover crop • Spinach + beans (+ inset crop) non OK (OK) • Broad beans + Spinach or cabbage or wheat non OK • Works in progress investigate : • specific crop sequences and rotations, • fertilisation recommendation rates for the different crops grown in the Belgian Walloon region

  13. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION