Burning issues with utis
1 / 36

Burning Issues with UTIs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Burning Issues with UTIs. Meghan Brett, MD Division of ID Hospital Epidemiologist Medical Director, Antimicrobial Stewardship. Objectives. Distinguish between asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and different types of active UTIs (complicated vs. uncomplicated)

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Burning Issues with UTIs' - phiala

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Burning issues with utis

Burning Issues with UTIs

Meghan Brett, MD

Division of ID

Hospital Epidemiologist

Medical Director, Antimicrobial Stewardship


  • Distinguish between asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and different types of active UTIs (complicated vs. uncomplicated)

  • Describe in which patients ASB should be treated

  • Learn how to diagnose a catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs)

  • Describe how to determine empiric treatment and how long uncomplicated UTIs should be treated

  • Know how to access and use various antibiograms and other resources

What s the burden of utis
What’s the Burden of UTIs?

  • 50% of women will have a UTI in their lifetime

    • Up to 25% may have a second UTI within 6 months

  • Visits related to UTI

    • 3 million ED visits in 2010

    • Most common primary diagnosis for U.S. women visiting EDs

    • 100,000 hospitalizations in U.S.

    • 0.9% of all ambulatory visits

  • Half of all UTIs were among patients age 18 to 44 years

  • Pts visiting the ED have higher acuity than those pts presenting to primary care

    • 400,000 (13%) were for pyelo (13 visits/10,000 people)

    • In general population: 1 case/28 cases of cystitis

Who is most affected by utis
Who is Most Affected by UTIs?

  • Annual Incidence of UTIs

    • Young, sexually active women: 2 – 4%

    • Women > 70 yrs: 5 – 10%

    • Women > 80 yrs: 50%

    • Institutionalized Women: 40%

    • Adult men (childhood through middle age): < 1%

    • Men > 65 yrs: 1 – 3%

    • Men > 80 yrs: 10%

    • Institutionalized Men: 25%

  • CAUTIs: ~1 million/year

What are take home points
What Are Take Home Points?

  • Assemble the whole clinical picture (i.e., limiting reflexive Rx of positive Urine Cx)

  • Determine the syndrome

  • Distinguish between complicated vs. uncomplicated UTIs

  • Choose appropriate empiric antibiotics based on likely bacterial etiologies and their resistance

  • Adjust antibiotics based on culture results

  • Decide about length of therapy

Questions 1 st set
Questions (1st Set)

  • How do you define asymptomatic bacteriuria ASB?

  • How do you differentiate between asymptomatic bacteriuria and UTI?

  • Which groups need to be treated for ASB?

  • What criteria do you use to define uncomplicated vs. complicated UTIs?

  • Why does distinguishing uncomplicated vs. complicated help?

  • What kinds of questions would you ask to distinguish between uncomplicated and complicated?

Asymptomatic bacteriuria

  • Asx women: 2 consecutive voided urine specimens with isolation of same bacterial strain in quantitative counts ≥ 105cfu/mL

  • Men: single, clean-catch voided specimen with 1 bacterial species isolated in quantitative counts ≥ 105cfu/mL

  • Women or men: single catheterized specimen with 1 bacterial species isolated in quantitative count ≥ 102cfu/mL

Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), ASB guidelines 2005


  • Evidence that screening and treatment does not lead to improved clinical outcomes

  • More likely, unnecessary antibiotics may cause harm

    • Adverse effects

    • C difficileinfection

    • Antibiotic resistance

    • Wasted expense

Clinical presentation distinguishing asb vx uti
Clinical Presentation – Distinguishing ASB vx. UTI

  • Lower tract signs

    • Dysuria

    • Frequent urination

    • Urgent urination

  • DDX:

    • STIs

    • Vaginitis

    • Exposure to chemical or allergic irritants

Clinical presentation distinguishing asb vx uti1
Clinical Presentation – Distinguishing ASB vx. UTI

  • Upper tract:

    • Fevers, chills

    • Nausea

    • Flank pain

    • Often also with dysuria/frequency/urgency

Which groups require rx for asb
Which Groups Require Rx for ASB?

  • Definitive:

    • Pregnant Women

    • Anyone undergoing TURP or Urologic procedures during which mucosal bleeding is anticipated

  • Maybe:

    • Renal transplant patients

    • Neutropenic patients

Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), ASB guidelines 2005

Uncomplicated vs complicated
Uncomplicated vs. Complicated

  • Uncomplicated – premenopausal women

    • No structural or functional abnormalities in urinary tract

    • Not pregnant

  • Complicated –

    • Structural abnormalities (e.g., nephrolithiasis)

    • Functional abnormalities (e.g., ureteral reflux)

    • Compromised hosts (e.g., pregnant, diabetic)

    • UTIs in boys/men: until structural/functional ruled out

IDSA, Uncomplicated UTI Guidelines 2011

DielubanzaEJ. ID Clin N Am 2014.

Why distinguish between uncomplicated vs complicated
Why Distinguish Between Uncomplicated vs. Complicated?

  • Guidelines for uncomplicated but none for complicated UTIs

  • More important than upper tract/lower tract

  • Complicated

    • May need further evaluation (diagnostics, urology consult)

    • Increased morbidity and mortality

    • May encounter more drug resistance (IV ABX)

    • Duration of therapy will likely be longer

  • Assess conversion from uncomplicated to complicated (may indicated underlying issues)

Questions to distinguish uncomplicated from complicated
Questions to Distinguish Uncomplicated from Complicated

  • Pregnancy status

  • History of kidney stones

  • Structural/functional GU abnormalities

  • Pelvic surgery

  • DM

  • Neurologic disorders

  • Recent ABX use

  • Recent hospitalization

  • Recent GU instrumentation

Questions 2 nd set
Questions (2nd Set)

  • What’s the best way to obtain a urine sample for diagnosing a UTI?

  • What are indications for having a Foley catheter?

  • What tests do you review on a urinalysis to make you consider a UTI? ASB?

  • How do you diagnose a CAUTI?

Key issue urine sample collection
Key Issue – Urine Sample Collection

  • Clean-catch, mid-stream = best

  • In/Out catheterization

  • DO NOT insert Foley catheters for sake of urine collection (unless otherwise indicated)

Indications for foley catheters
Indications for Foley Catheters

  • Patients with hemodynamic instability (e.g., on pressors) who require urine output monitoring

  • Urinary obstruction/retention

  • Sacral or perineal wounds in patients with incontinence

  • Genitourinary surgery/Placed by a Urologist

  • Requires prolonged immobilization (unstable spine)

  • End of life care

CDC (HICPAC) CAUTI Prevention Guidelines, 2009


Review of ua for evidence of infection
Review of UA for Evidence of Infection

  • Check squamous cells first… if > 20, likely a contaminated sample

  • Nitrites

    • Produced by many Gram-negatives

    • Requires hours for conversion of nitrate  nitrite

    • Not by Gram-positives, candida species

  • WBCs

    • > 10 per high powered field

  • Leukocyte esterase

    • Enzyme found in neutrophils

    • If present, indicates neutrophil activity


  • Pyuria in ASB does not need to be treated

  • Urine samples that sit will have alterations in UA results

    • Samples analyzed within 2 hours or refrigerated to limit false positive and false negative results

Questions 3 rd set
Questions (3rd Set)

  • How do you select an antibiotic for empiric treatment treatment?

  • When do you change from empiric to directed antibiotic therapy?

  • How long do you treat uncomplicated cystitis? Uncomplicated pyelonephritis?

  • How do you treat CAUTIs? For how long?

  • Do you test urine for cure? Why?

Treatment of utis what bugs
Treatment of UTIs – What Bugs?

  • Enteric flora colonizing perineum and urethra

  • E. coli

    • 80% of first infection in women, men, children

    • 50% of nosocomial UTIs

    • Most common for acute uncomplicated cystitis

    • Many episodes of complicated UTIs and pyelo

  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus

    • 11% of UTIs (sexually active, younger women)

  • Remaining

    • GNRs (Klebiella, Proteus mirabilis)  increasingly MDROs

    • Gram-positive cocci (entercoccus and GBS)

What s first line therapy empiric treatment uncomplicated only
What’s First Line Therapy (Empiric Treatment)? – Uncomplicated Only!

  • Antimicrobial Stewardship Clinical Pathway (with a focus on inpatients)

Change from empiric to directed
Change from Empiric to Directed? Uncomplicated Only!

  • When you have culture results

  • Look at susceptibility interpretations

  • Determine what has good urine/kidney penetration

  • Lowest MIC ≠ Best ABX selection

  • Questions? Call Antimicrobial Stewardship! (on amion.com)

How long to treat
How Long to Treat? Uncomplicated Only!

  • It depends!

  • Uncomplicated UTIs

    • Cystitis 

      • Nitrofurantoin or Bactrim  3 days

      • 20% resistance in isolates is an indication not to use this for empiric coverage

      • Note: nitrofurantoin should not be used in patients with Creatinine clearance < 50 (does not reach bladder)

    • Pyelonephritis 

      • FQ  5 – 7 days

      • Beta-lactams  10 – 14 days

      • Bactrim  14 days

How long to treat cautis
How Long to Treat CAUTIs? Uncomplicated Only!

  • 7 days of treatment for patients with CAUTI who have prompt resolution of symptoms

  • 10 – 14 days in patients with delayed response to treatment

  • 3 day regimen may be considered for women ≤ 65 yrs who develop CAUTI without upper tract sx after a catheter has been removed

Test of cure
Test of Cure? Uncomplicated Only!

  • Nope (please don’t)

Other notes
Other Notes Uncomplicated Only!

  • Complicated including CAUTIs

    • Polymicrobial for longer-term (>30d) indwelling catheters

    • More drug resistant (ESBLs, P. aeruginosa, or enterococcus faecium)

  • S. aureus– what to do?

Treatment of cautis
Treatment of CAUTIs Uncomplicated Only!

  • Algorithm to be developed

Greatest overuse of antibiotics
Greatest Overuse of Antibiotics Uncomplicated Only!

It’s ASB

patient’s positive urine cx

Unintended consequences of abx
Unintended Consequences of ABX Uncomplicated Only!

  • Drug reactions

  • C difficileinfections

  • Selection for drug resistance

  • Stay tuned… impact to the microbiome

Resources Uncomplicated Only!

ASP – InptAntibiograms and Clinical Pathways

  • https://hospitals.health.unm.edu/intranet/Index.cfm

  • https://hospitals.health.unm.edu/intranet/antimicrobial/pathways.shtml

  • http://www.tricore.org/Healthcare-Professionals/Test-Information/Antibiograms

Tricore – Outpatient Antibiograms