Names of the Middle Colonies • New York • New Jersey • Delaware • Pennsylvania
Reasons for Settlement • Delaware, New Jersey, and New York were founded for trading reasons and Pennsylvania was founded for religious freedom. • Religious tolerance and inexpensive land. • To find a better way of life.
New York & New Jersey Reasons for Settlement • England captured the Dutch colony of New Netherland. The King of England gave it to his brother James, the Duke of York. James became the proprietor, a person who owns and controls all the land in a colony, of New Netherland. He kept part of the land and gave the rest to two friends. His land became New York and theirs was New Jersey.
New York and New Jersey Government • To make money from their colonies they divided the fertile land into smaller pieces and sold it to the colonists to farm. Since the proprietors lived in England it was hard to control their land. They each chose governors that lived in the colonies and the governors chose a small group of people called a council to help them make important decisions. • The proprietors also allowed colonists to elect representatives, someone who is chosen to act and speak for others, to an assembly. The assembly helped the governor and council make laws, but it did not have much power.
Pennsylvania and Delaware Reasons for Settlement • Pennsylvania was given to William Penn by King Charles II. • He owed their family money and decided to repay them with land. • William Penn was a Quaker, a person who believed that all Christians should be free to worship in their own way. His hope for Pennsylvania (which means Penn’s woods) was a colony where all Christians could live together in peace. • Later, The Duke of York gave Penn more land that became the colony of Delaware.
Pennsylvania and DelawareGovernment • In Pennsylvania, Penn created laws that allowed colonists to voice their opinions and worship freely. He also let colonists elect representatives to an assembly. The Pennsylvania assembly had more power than others and it could approve or reject laws that the governor and his council suggested. • Penn treated American Indians with respect and made many fair treaties with them. A treaty is an official document between nations or groups.
Pennsylvania’s City –Philadelphia • Penn planned the first city of the colony, Philadelphia. • He chose a site where the Delaware and Schuykill rivers met. • Ships bringing goods from other colonies and from Europe could land in these excellent harbors. • He designed wide, straight road that made it easy to travel through the city. • By the 1700s it was the center of trade and the largest city in all the colonies.
Benjamin Franklin • Benjamin Franklin was Philadelphia’s most famous citizen. He moved there in 1723 and brought his own printing press. • He published a newspaper and a popular book of stories, jokes, and sayings called Poor Richard’s Almanack. • He helped start Philadelphia’s first public library, fire company, and hospital.
Geography • Near Atlantic coast • Rolling hills and valleys • Fertile soil • Thick forests • Rivers (most important rivers were the Hudson and Delaware)
Climate • A lot of sunny days • Plenty of rain • Mild climate • Rich soil • Long growing season (6-7 months)
Natural Resources • Cattle • Grain • Fish • Lumber • Iron • Fur • Whales • Oil
Farming • Fruits and vegetables • Wheat, oat, rye, and barely were the main crops. • In fact, they grew so many different grains used to make bread that the Middle Colonies became known as the “breadbasket” of the 13 colonies. • On average, people in the Middle Colonies ate about one pound of bread per day.
Products • The Middle Colonies had the most industry. They manufactured glass, leather goods, shoes, barrels, guns, axes, and tools.
Jobs • Farmers • Tailors • Glassblowers • Silversmiths • Brickmakers