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The Renaissance. World History Chapter 15. A New Beginning. Renaissance – means “rebirth” Self conscious revival of classic civilization and sense of creating something Scholars wanted to revive classical civilizations Viewed humans as 3 dimensional

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the renaissance

The Renaissance

World History

Chapter 15

a new beginning
A New Beginning
  • Renaissance – means “rebirth”
  • Self conscious revival of classic civilization and sense of creating something
  • Scholars wanted to revive classical civilizations
  • Viewed humans as 3 dimensional
  • Emphasis was on secular (spiritual) aspects of life
  • Individualism and versatility: important aspects of the Renaissance spirit
  • Humanism – means classical scholarship (studied original Latin or Greek manuscripts)
  • Educational reform put greater emphasis on classical scholarship
  • Dante Alighieri wrote The Divine Comedy
  • Leonardo da Vinci painted The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa
  • Michelangelo painted The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel
humanism continued
Humanism continued…
  • Humanism began to spread north
  • Central figure of Humanism: Johann Reuchlin
  • Reuchlin was a German scholar that helped spread the influence of Humanism after he visited Italy
  • See VIDEO (approx 3 minutes)
  • Martin Luther: born in 1483
  • Planned to be a lawyer
  • Studied the bible; became a monk instead
  • Determined that faith alone not indulgences (which are pardons from punishment of sin as a way for the pope to raise money) was whether you were going to heaven or not
  • Was told by Pope Leo X to recant but he refused and Luther was declared a heretic, was excommunicated, and was declared an outlaw by Charles V of the HRE
The selling of indulgences. These people are paying a fee in order to receive a pardon for the sins they have committed.

Martin Luther’s reply when asked if he wanted to recant any of his ideas or works:"Unless I am convicted by scripture and plain reason - I do not accept the authority of the popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other - my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. God help me. Amen."

lutherans continued
Lutherans continued…
  • Luther translated the New Testament from Latin to German
  • Followers of Luther became known as Protestants because they protested the church
  • Many common people supported Protestantism because you didn’t have to pay for it and you can have a direct relationship with God
lets talk about sects baby
Lets talk about sects baby…
  • Many new sects (or religious groups) formed after Luther
  • Other sects that followed:
    • Baptists – Believers are baptized vs babies baptized
    • Church of England/Anglicans (English Protestants) – started because Henry VIII wanted a divorce
    • Calvinism – started by John Calvin (who followed Luther’s ideas but instead believed in predestination, or God has already determined your fate)
church reaction
Church reaction
  • Catholic church finally realized how much of a threat Protestantism was to their institution
  • Started the counter-Reformation
  • Tried to appoint only very devout and religious people as bishops and cardinals
  • Pope Paul III – began the Inquisition (punished heretics by burning them at the stake)
council of trent
Council of Trent
  • A gathering of clergymen that determined policy and procedures for the church
  • Banned the sale of indulgences
  • Put more rules on the clergy
  • Emphasized ceremonies to honor God
  • Forgiveness came only from the church and had faith for salvation
  • Determined policy on Catholic views on scripture, original sin, baptism, sacraments, and the Eucharist
scientific discoveries
Scientific Discoveries
  • Witchcraft – belief in magic that led to science searching for answers to secrets (scientific method); started a science revolution
  • Notable names:
  • Copernicus – sun was the center of the universe, not Earth
  • Johannes Kepler – helped proved Copernicus’ ideas
  • Galileo – invented the telescope
  • Rene Descartes – in science, must prove everything
  • Isaac Newton – laws of motion and gravity