Future President Roosevelt • Theodore Roosevelt- born to a wealthy New York Family in 1858. • Had Asthma, but didn’t let it slow him down. • Became leader in New York Politics. • 3 terms on NY Assembly • New York Police Commissioner. • Volunteer Cavalry Brigade known as the Rough Riders.
Future President Roosevelt • While in New York Politics Roosevelt worked for reform. • Became too powerful, and worried the more corrupt politicians/business people. • Idea to slow his growing popularity: Make him Vice President! • Roosevelt accepts to by VP for President McKinley. • McKinley is assassinated in 1901. • Roosevelt is President! • Known for 3 things: Big Stick Diplomacy, Conservation, and Trust Busting
President Roosevelt’s Square Deal • Square Deal – term for progressive reform. • Trustbusting: filed law suites against businesses who held too much power. • Supreme Court would dissolve the businesses. • 44 Anti-Trust suits. • Created Conservation lands • Protected the environment. • Had land set aside by government NOT for private sale.
Square Deal • Coal Strike of 1902 • 140,000 Coal; miners went on strike for 20% raise and 9-hour workday. • Lasted five months • Reserves ran low • Teddy Roosevelt intervened and miners received 10% raise and 9 hour work day in return for no strike for 3 years and not everyone had to be in labor union. • Railroads: Passed the Elkins Act – rebates for using certain railroads – and Hepburn Act which limited free pass distribution.
Muckrakers • Journalists who tried to uncover corruption. • Name coined by Teddy Roosevelt • Ida M. Tarbell: • Uncovered the corruption with the Rockefeller Standard Oil Company –a Monopoly. • Lincoln Steffens: • Leader of Muckraking movement. • Published in Magazines • Upton Sinclair: • The Jungle
Square Deal • Meat Inspection Act (1906) • Response to reading The Jungle by Upton Sinclair • Cleanliness requirements for meatpackers and federal inspection. • Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) • Halted sale of contaminated food and truth in labeling.
President Taft • Hand-picked by Roosevelt. • Roosevelt left office after 2 terms and went on a Safari. • The REAL Trustbuster • William Howard Taft elected in 1908. • A careful Progressive leader • Very hesitant • Given very little credit despite 90 Trust Busts in 4 years!
Taft Troubles • Campaign of lowering Tariffs. • Aldrich Bill passed which made fewer cuts and increased rates. • Payne-Aldrich Tariff passed, compromise between moderates and Aldrich supporters. • Richard A. Ballinger made Secretary of the Interior - gave away 1 million acres of conservation land. • Gifford Pinchot (Head of U.S. Forest Service) and an official in Dept. of Interior wrote about Ballinger being corrupt . • Taft sided with Ballinger and Pinchot was fired.
Republicans Split • 1910 – Republican party in shambles. • Split between conservatives and progressives. • Taft blamed for high living costs and hurting conservation movement. • Democrats gain control of the House for first time in 18 years. • Roosevelt returned in 1910. • Decided to run for election in 1912. • Taft got Republican nomination when Progressives created their own party known as Bull Moose Party with Roosevelt getting the nomination.
1912 Election • Democrat Woodrow Wilson wins election. • Ran on the “New Freedom” platform. • Stronger Anti-Trust legislation, banking reform, and reduce tariffs. • Roosevelt is the closest any independent ever came to winning election. • Defeater Taft in Popular and Electoral Votes • Wilson won with only 42% of the Popular votes, but most of the Electoral Votes.
Wilson’s New Freedom • Two key Anti-Trust measures: • 1. Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) – strengthen Sherman Antitrust Act. • No monopolies, and strengthen unions. • 2. Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914. • Set up the Federal Trade Commission. • Can investigate violations of regulatory statutes. • Underwood Act 1913 – cut tariffs. • Senate voted to cut rates to even lower than the House of Representatives did. • Used Bully Pulpit tactic.
New Freedom • Needed to replace lost funs when Tariffs cuts. • 16th Amendments passed which created a federal income tax. • More money came from income tax than ever came from tariff. • Created Private Banking system under federal control. • Credit availability and money supply at pace with economy. • Federal Reserve System.
New Freedom… literally! • College educated women strengthened movement. • Wealthy women travelled to Europe, and witnessed the British suffragist movement. • became more organized • More united on local, state, and national level • Gained support • Lobbying • Lady-like behavior • When this did not work – became Radical! • With the radical acts and WW1 19th Amendment was passed! • Women could now vote!
End of Progressivism • Like Roosevelt and Taft – Wilson not very support of Civil Rights. • Further limited segregation and opposed anti-lynching legislation (state control) • In 1914, international conflict brings American Progressivism to a standstill. • WW1 ends the Era • More concerned about the war and America’s potential part.