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Unit 4

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  1. Unit 4 Expansion and Division

  2. Start Up • What is the most important Invention of all time?

  3. Vocabulary • Industrial Revolution- social and economic reorganization that took place as machines replaced hand tools and large-scale factory production developed • Cotton gin- invented by Eli Whitney, a machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers • Interchangeable parts- standardized parts that can be used in place of another

  4. Another Revolution? • New approaches to manufacturing led to the creation of factories which led to the Industrial Revolution • Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain • The War of 1812 and the Embargo Act turned the US towards domestic industries • Had to limit overseas shipping in order to always have supplies

  5. Industrial Revolution • Eli Whitney • Invented the Cotton gin- allowed production of more cotton faster • Invented interchangeable parts for muskets- allowing all parts to be used in different places • First steps toward developing tools which unskilled workers could make • In 1798, Whitney manufactured 10,000 muskets in 2 years. Factories were producing around 300 a year.

  6. COTTON! Cotton gin allowed: to be seeded faster Faster production Economic boom! Accelerated the expansion of slavery in the south Who was the king of the south?

  7. Sectionalism • Sectionalism – favoring ones region over another • The North became industrialized • Textile manufacturing • Shipping • The South became agrarian • Cotton • Meat • Grain • Plan to unify country becomes important • American System designed by Henry Clay • Developing transportation system • National currency

  8. Erie Canal and National Road • Erie Canal • Economic growth was based off of trade • Canals would lower costs, short term they are expensive • 363 Miles • The “Big Ditch” • 8 years to dig • 1825 linked the Hudson River to Lake Erie • Paid for itself in just 12 years! • Created New York City into a dominant port into the country • The success of the Erie Canal led to more canals being built. Over 3,000 miles of canals built by 1837

  9. Erie Canal and National Road • National Road • Many states build turnpikes to pay for themselves • Idea of roads were to connect different regions • Began in 1811 and ended in 1838 • Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois

  10. Impact of the Industrial Revolution • Created an economic boom in the US • Allowed for the production of products to be faster and in mass quantities • Created more domestic trade and domestic industries

  11. Invention Convention • Create your own invention. • Something that will make a difference in the world today just like the cotton gin did during the industrial revolution. • Draw your invention, then below describe your invention. Explain (1) why it is needed and (2) why it would make a difference in the world today.

  12. Warm Up • What are the two parts of Henry Clay’s American System? • What are two results…hint, they are really long…

  13. Go West Young Man! Manifest Destiny

  14. Expanding west…again • Manifest Destiny was the belief, God given right, that the US’s borders should extend all the way to the Pacific Ocean. • Many Americans ventured west to start a new life. • There were many dangers: weather, Indians, Mexico, the unexpected.

  15. Who and why did people go west? • Fresh start and new opportunity • Land- could it be used for farming and mining? • Farmers, miners, merchants moved west • California Gold Rush!

  16. California Gold Rush • Gold Discovery in California 1848- sped up expansion into California • In 1849 30,000 would be miners set out overland from Missouri to CA • Another 25,000 made it by sea • Few became rich, but the hundreds of thousands pushed CA towards statehood

  17. Immigration to the West • Between 1840 and 1860, more than250,000 people made the trekwestward.

  18. Meeting the Native Americans • White settlers placed pressure on the Native Americans to move • Native Americans struggled with keeping traditions • Native Americans became irritated and rebelled - The Black Hawk War in Illinois.

  19. The trails made moving west easy! • Made the journey in covered wagons, carried supplies, food, and people! • The Santa Fe Trail- Missouri to New Mexico • The Oregon Trail- Missouri to Portland • The Mormon Trail- helped to establish the West, mainly Utah

  20. In result… • Manifest Destiny was a common idea amongst Americans and this led to the movement out west.

  21. Start Up • 1) What “idea” encouraged people to move west? • A) Monroe Doctrine • B) Manifest Destiny • C) Cotton Gin • 2) The creation of what US invention helped fuel the industrial revolution? • A) Cotton Gin • B) Manifest Destiny • C) Silly Bandz

  22. Chap 8: Reform and Movements

  23. Start Up • Read Section 3, starting on page 257 • 1) At what convention was the Declaration of Sentiments created? • 2) What 2 people called for the Seneca Falls Convention? • 3) What was the Purpose of all this? • 4) What did Sojourner Truth call for?

  24. Vocabulary • Jacksonian Democracy – Jackson take on the presidency; strongest branch is the executive; favored the common man • Indian Removal Act – Displacing Native Americans to the West • Trail of Tears – Journey of NA to the West • John C. Calhoun – VP of Jackson, threatened secession from union • Nullification Crisis – Questioning if states rights are stronger than federal authority • Suffrage – right to vote

  25. President Andrew Jackson Born in Tennessee. General in victory at Battle of New Orleans in War of 1812. Indian fighter and dualist Wealthy Wins campaign of 1828 – Suffrage extended to non land owners Seventh President from 1828-1836. Jacksonian Democracy

  26. Jacksonian Democracy • Similar Ideas to Jefferson • Like industrialization • Common man is farmer and factory worker • Strong military • Democracy open to all – didn’t have to own property • Spoils system- replacing existing federal workers with ones that agree and support you – his friends • Believes President is most powerful of the branches of government.

  27. Jacksonian Democracy • Events in Jackson’s Presidency • Indian Removal • Jackson did not believe assimilation could work • Would take to many troops to protect land • Decided to kick them out • Indian Removal Act of 1830 • Federal funds to negotiate treaties to move Native Americans from the east to OK and KS • Worchester v. Georgia – Cherokee allowed to stay in Georgia – Jackson still has them removed • Trail of Tears – 800 mile journey taken by Native Americans during the winter of 1838

  28. Trail of Tears

  29. Jacksonian Democracy • Events in Jackson’s presidency • Nullification Crisis Background • After the war of 1812, Britain tried to destroy American economy by flooding market with inexpensive goods • Congress put a high tariff on goods in 1816, 1824, and 1828 • Tariffs made South dependent on expensive goods in the North – North economy boomed, South did not

  30. Jacksonian Democracy • Events • Nullification Crisis(States rights v. Fed Auth.) • John C. Calhoun • VP, declared that any state had to nullify, or reject, any law from the federal government that they deemed unconstitutional. • If fed government doesn’t recognize Nullification, it can withdrawal from the Union. • Jackson • Was furious and threatened to hang Calhoun • Henry Clay ( The Great Compromiser) wrote bill to lower tariffs over 10 years

  31. Warm-Up • What new problem, concerning slavery, do you think will arise after the War with Mexico? • Without being racist, what are some pros, if any, and cons of slavery?

  32. The War With Mexico • Texas Revolution • War with Mexico • James K Polk!

  33. Compromising Over Slavery Really, how many times can this happen?

  34. Compromising Slavery • Every time settlers moved west, tension mounted on slavery • Several compromises appeased both sides, but conflict was inevitable • Missouri Compromise (p. 222) • Wilmot Proviso (p. 306) • Compromise of 1850 (p. 307) • Kansas-Nebraska Act (p. 314)

  35. Compromising Slavery • Missouri Compromise (1820) • Missouri accepted as a slave state, Maine accepted as a free state (Henry Clay) • Louisiana Territory under Missouri would be slave territory, everything above 36º 30’ N would be free territory • Cause • Balance of 11 Slave States and 11 Free State would be uneven – Missouri would tip the scale of power • Effect • Thomas Jefferson Feared Civil War • Settled slavery dispute temp.

  36. Missouri Compromise

  37. Compromising Slavery • Wilmot Proviso (1846) – Amendment added to military bill - No slavery in newly won land from War With Mexico • Cause • Newly acquired lands from War with Mexico power hangs in the balance once more • Effect • Failed • Missouri Compromise still in effect • Again discussion of war, temp settled

  38. Compromising Slavery • Compromise of 1850 – • California admitted as a free state/ Utah and New Mexico up to popular sovereignty – PS -let people choose. • No slave trade in Washington DC, existing slaves stayed. • Fugitive Slave Act • Northerners had to return slaves • Slaves have no Const. Rights • Statement by slave owner all that is needed to take slave back to plantation.

  39. Compromising Slavery • Compromise of 1850 • Cause • Westward expansion (California statehood) • Southerners wanted Fugitive Slave Act enforced • Northerners wanted DC to be free • New Mexico hadn’t been decided • Effect • Both sides appeased for time being • Passed one at a time

  40. Compromising Slavery • Kansas-Nebraska Act ( 1854 Stephen Douglas) • Nebraska divided into two territories - Nebraska and Kansas • Repeal of the Missouri Compromise • Slavery left up to popular sovereignty

  41. Compromising Slavery • Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854 Stephen Douglas) • Cause • Americans wanted to see Western lands incorporated into Union • Nebraska Territory entering Union, above 36°, 30’, thought it would be divided into one slave and one free state • Wanted to repeal Missouri Compromise to gather southern support

  42. Compromising Slavery • Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854 Stephen Douglas) • Effect • Kansas is populated by abolitionists, enough to declare statehood; hold election • “Border Ruffians” vote for slavery illegally • Causes violence in Kansas earning the name Bleeding Kansas