Unit 4 Expansion and Division
Start Up • What is the most important Invention of all time?
Vocabulary • Industrial Revolution- social and economic reorganization that took place as machines replaced hand tools and large-scale factory production developed • Cotton gin- invented by Eli Whitney, a machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers • Interchangeable parts- standardized parts that can be used in place of another
Another Revolution? • New approaches to manufacturing led to the creation of factories which led to the Industrial Revolution • Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain • The War of 1812 and the Embargo Act turned the US towards domestic industries • Had to limit overseas shipping in order to always have supplies
Industrial Revolution • Eli Whitney • Invented the Cotton gin- allowed production of more cotton faster • Invented interchangeable parts for muskets- allowing all parts to be used in different places • First steps toward developing tools which unskilled workers could make • In 1798, Whitney manufactured 10,000 muskets in 2 years. Factories were producing around 300 a year.
COTTON! Cotton gin allowed: to be seeded faster Faster production Economic boom! Accelerated the expansion of slavery in the south Who was the king of the south?
Sectionalism • Sectionalism – favoring ones region over another • The North became industrialized • Textile manufacturing • Shipping • The South became agrarian • Cotton • Meat • Grain • Plan to unify country becomes important • American System designed by Henry Clay • Developing transportation system • National currency
Erie Canal and National Road • Erie Canal • Economic growth was based off of trade • Canals would lower costs, short term they are expensive • 363 Miles • The “Big Ditch” • 8 years to dig • 1825 linked the Hudson River to Lake Erie • Paid for itself in just 12 years! • Created New York City into a dominant port into the country • The success of the Erie Canal led to more canals being built. Over 3,000 miles of canals built by 1837
Erie Canal and National Road • National Road • Many states build turnpikes to pay for themselves • Idea of roads were to connect different regions • Began in 1811 and ended in 1838 • Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois
Impact of the Industrial Revolution • Created an economic boom in the US • Allowed for the production of products to be faster and in mass quantities • Created more domestic trade and domestic industries
Invention Convention • Create your own invention. • Something that will make a difference in the world today just like the cotton gin did during the industrial revolution. • Draw your invention, then below describe your invention. Explain (1) why it is needed and (2) why it would make a difference in the world today.
Warm Up • What are the two parts of Henry Clay’s American System? • What are two results…hint, they are really long…
Go West Young Man! Manifest Destiny
Expanding west…again • Manifest Destiny was the belief, God given right, that the US’s borders should extend all the way to the Pacific Ocean. • Many Americans ventured west to start a new life. • There were many dangers: weather, Indians, Mexico, the unexpected.
Who and why did people go west? • Fresh start and new opportunity • Land- could it be used for farming and mining? • Farmers, miners, merchants moved west • California Gold Rush!
California Gold Rush • Gold Discovery in California 1848- sped up expansion into California • In 1849 30,000 would be miners set out overland from Missouri to CA • Another 25,000 made it by sea • Few became rich, but the hundreds of thousands pushed CA towards statehood
Immigration to the West • Between 1840 and 1860, more than250,000 people made the trekwestward.
Meeting the Native Americans • White settlers placed pressure on the Native Americans to move • Native Americans struggled with keeping traditions • Native Americans became irritated and rebelled - The Black Hawk War in Illinois.
The trails made moving west easy! • Made the journey in covered wagons, carried supplies, food, and people! • The Santa Fe Trail- Missouri to New Mexico • The Oregon Trail- Missouri to Portland • The Mormon Trail- helped to establish the West, mainly Utah
In result… • Manifest Destiny was a common idea amongst Americans and this led to the movement out west.
Start Up • 1) What “idea” encouraged people to move west? • A) Monroe Doctrine • B) Manifest Destiny • C) Cotton Gin • 2) The creation of what US invention helped fuel the industrial revolution? • A) Cotton Gin • B) Manifest Destiny • C) Silly Bandz
Start Up • Read Section 3, starting on page 257 • 1) At what convention was the Declaration of Sentiments created? • 2) What 2 people called for the Seneca Falls Convention? • 3) What was the Purpose of all this? • 4) What did Sojourner Truth call for?
Vocabulary • Jacksonian Democracy – Jackson take on the presidency; strongest branch is the executive; favored the common man • Indian Removal Act – Displacing Native Americans to the West • Trail of Tears – Journey of NA to the West • John C. Calhoun – VP of Jackson, threatened secession from union • Nullification Crisis – Questioning if states rights are stronger than federal authority • Suffrage – right to vote
President Andrew Jackson Born in Tennessee. General in victory at Battle of New Orleans in War of 1812. Indian fighter and dualist Wealthy Wins campaign of 1828 – Suffrage extended to non land owners Seventh President from 1828-1836. Jacksonian Democracy
Jacksonian Democracy • Similar Ideas to Jefferson • Like industrialization • Common man is farmer and factory worker • Strong military • Democracy open to all – didn’t have to own property • Spoils system- replacing existing federal workers with ones that agree and support you – his friends • Believes President is most powerful of the branches of government.
Jacksonian Democracy • Events in Jackson’s Presidency • Indian Removal • Jackson did not believe assimilation could work • Would take to many troops to protect land • Decided to kick them out • Indian Removal Act of 1830 • Federal funds to negotiate treaties to move Native Americans from the east to OK and KS • Worchester v. Georgia – Cherokee allowed to stay in Georgia – Jackson still has them removed • Trail of Tears – 800 mile journey taken by Native Americans during the winter of 1838
Jacksonian Democracy • Events in Jackson’s presidency • Nullification Crisis Background • After the war of 1812, Britain tried to destroy American economy by flooding market with inexpensive goods • Congress put a high tariff on goods in 1816, 1824, and 1828 • Tariffs made South dependent on expensive goods in the North – North economy boomed, South did not
Jacksonian Democracy • Events • Nullification Crisis(States rights v. Fed Auth.) • John C. Calhoun • VP, declared that any state had to nullify, or reject, any law from the federal government that they deemed unconstitutional. • If fed government doesn’t recognize Nullification, it can withdrawal from the Union. • Jackson • Was furious and threatened to hang Calhoun • Henry Clay ( The Great Compromiser) wrote bill to lower tariffs over 10 years
Warm-Up • What new problem, concerning slavery, do you think will arise after the War with Mexico? • Without being racist, what are some pros, if any, and cons of slavery?
The War With Mexico • Texas Revolution • War with Mexico • James K Polk!
Compromising Over Slavery Really, how many times can this happen?
Compromising Slavery • Every time settlers moved west, tension mounted on slavery • Several compromises appeased both sides, but conflict was inevitable • Missouri Compromise (p. 222) • Wilmot Proviso (p. 306) • Compromise of 1850 (p. 307) • Kansas-Nebraska Act (p. 314)
Compromising Slavery • Missouri Compromise (1820) • Missouri accepted as a slave state, Maine accepted as a free state (Henry Clay) • Louisiana Territory under Missouri would be slave territory, everything above 36º 30’ N would be free territory • Cause • Balance of 11 Slave States and 11 Free State would be uneven – Missouri would tip the scale of power • Effect • Thomas Jefferson Feared Civil War • Settled slavery dispute temp.
Compromising Slavery • Wilmot Proviso (1846) – Amendment added to military bill - No slavery in newly won land from War With Mexico • Cause • Newly acquired lands from War with Mexico power hangs in the balance once more • Effect • Failed • Missouri Compromise still in effect • Again discussion of war, temp settled
Compromising Slavery • Compromise of 1850 – • California admitted as a free state/ Utah and New Mexico up to popular sovereignty – PS -let people choose. • No slave trade in Washington DC, existing slaves stayed. • Fugitive Slave Act • Northerners had to return slaves • Slaves have no Const. Rights • Statement by slave owner all that is needed to take slave back to plantation.
Compromising Slavery • Compromise of 1850 • Cause • Westward expansion (California statehood) • Southerners wanted Fugitive Slave Act enforced • Northerners wanted DC to be free • New Mexico hadn’t been decided • Effect • Both sides appeased for time being • Passed one at a time
Compromising Slavery • Kansas-Nebraska Act ( 1854 Stephen Douglas) • Nebraska divided into two territories - Nebraska and Kansas • Repeal of the Missouri Compromise • Slavery left up to popular sovereignty
Compromising Slavery • Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854 Stephen Douglas) • Cause • Americans wanted to see Western lands incorporated into Union • Nebraska Territory entering Union, above 36°, 30’, thought it would be divided into one slave and one free state • Wanted to repeal Missouri Compromise to gather southern support
Compromising Slavery • Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854 Stephen Douglas) • Effect • Kansas is populated by abolitionists, enough to declare statehood; hold election • “Border Ruffians” vote for slavery illegally • Causes violence in Kansas earning the name Bleeding Kansas