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Lymphatic system. A series of highways training centers & checkpoints for our immune cells. Parts. Transport (conduction) system Lymph Leukocytes Lymphatic vessels Production organs Lymph nodes Tonsils Spleen Thymus gland. White Blood Cells (Leukocytes). Functions. Fluid balance

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lymphatic system

Lymphatic system

A series of highways training centers & checkpoints for our immune cells

parts
Parts
  • Transport (conduction) system
    • Lymph
    • Leukocytes
    • Lymphatic vessels
  • Production organs
    • Lymph nodes
    • Tonsils
    • Spleen
    • Thymus gland
functions
Functions
  • Fluid balance
    • Volume of blood not returned to veins (about 3L per day) = lymph
      • Contains H20, blood components & tissue cell components (gases, solutes, blood proteins, hormones).
  • Fat absorption
    • Lacteals absorb fats from small intestine
  • Defense
    • Microorganisms filtered from lymph by lymph nodes
    • Lymphocytes destroy invading microorganisms
lymphatic organs
Lymphatic organs
  • Tonsils
  • Lymph nodes
  • Spleen
  • Thymus
  • Other lymphatic tissues: lymphocyte & macrophage concentrations in connective tissues
    • Peyer’s patch in intestinal ET
    • Appendix lymphoid nodules
fig 24 3
Adenoid

Tonsil

Fig. 24-3

Thoracic duct,

entering vein

Lymph nodes

Lymph node

Right lymphatic

duct, entering

vein

Masses of

lymphocytes and

macrophages

Thymus

Valve

Thoracic

duct

Lymphatic vessel

Blood capillary

Tissue cells

Interstitial fluid

Spleen

Appendix

Bone

marrow

Lymphatic

vessels

Lymphatic

capillary

tonsils
Tonsils
  • Form a protective ring around openings of nasal & oral cavities
  • Protect against pathogens, bugs, dirt, etc.
    • Lacrimal canal opens into pharynx
lymph nodes
Lymph nodes
  • Network of distributed defense checkpoints
  • Seed to almond-sized
  • Two functions:
    • Remove microorganisms & foreign substances via macrophages (filter 99% of antigens in lymph)
      • Macrophages hang out in sinuses
    • Activate immune system by stimulating lymphocyte proliferation
spleen
Spleen
  • Filters blood rather than lymph
  • Size of a clenched fist; just inferior to stomach
  • White pulp: lymphatic tissue surrounding internal arteries
    • Lymphocytes are stimulated
  • Red pulp: fibrous network of macrophages, RBCs and capillaries connected to veins
    • Macrophages eat worn out cells & invaders
thymus
Thymus
  • Bilobed, sits atop the heart
  • Site of lymphocyte production and maturation
    • After maturation, lymphocytes enter blood stream and travel to other lymphatic tissues
    • Such as...
overview of system
Overview of System
  • conduction system
  • organs
  • What about lymphocytes?
    • NK cells
    • B cells
      • originate and mature in red marrow
    • T cells
      • pre-T cells originate in red marrow
      • Migrate to, and mature in, thymus (into T-cells)
    • Allmature cellsmigrate to and populate other lymphatic tissues
cell development
Bone

marrow

Stem cell

Thymus

Via

blood

Immature

lymphocytes

Antigen

receptor

Antigen

receptor

B cell

T cell

Via

blood

Lymph nodes,

spleen, and

other lymphatic

organs

Final maturation

of B and T cells in

lymphatic organ

Cell Development
  • Red marrow produces:
    • Pre B-cells: released into bloodstream
    • migrate to lymph organs
    • Pre T-cells: migrate to thymus & mature there
      • Mature T-cells migrate to lymph organs
immunity
Immunity
  • Innate (nonspecific): response to attack is always the same
    • Mechanical mechanisms
    • Chemical mediators
    • Cellular response
    • Inflammatory response
  • Adaptive:response to attack improves with each exposure
    • Specificity
    • Memory
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