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Mediastinoscopy. Nadeen mohamed mamdouh Habib. Objectives. Indications . The nature of the procedure. Important anesthetic management principles . Anesthetic technique. Complications. Indications.

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mediastinoscopy

Mediastinoscopy

Nadeen mohamed mamdouh Habib

objectives
Objectives
  • Indications .
  • The nature of the procedure.
  • Important anesthetic management principles.
  • Anesthetic technique.
  • Complications.
indications
Indications

Mediastinoscopy is commonly performed before thoracotomy to establish the diagnosis or to determine the resectability of lung carcinoma.

slide5

A tunnel is created by blunt dissection along the anterior and lateral walls of the trachea into the mediastinum down to the subcarinal area, for direct inspection and biopsy of superior mediastinal lymph nodes.

slide8
1)Thoracic aorta: (rupture, reflex bradycardia)
  • 2) Innominate artery: (decreased right carotid blood flow; can cause cerebrovascular symptoms, and decreased right subclavian blood flow; can cause loss of the right radial pulse).
  • 3) Trachea: (stimulus to cough, inability to ventilate)
  • 4) Vena cava: (risk of hemorrhage with superior vena cava syndrome)
slide9

Relative contraindication to mediastinoscopy include:Superior vena cava syndrome Severe tracheal deviation Cerebrovascular disease Thoracic aortic aneurysm

special anesthetic considerations
Special anesthetic considerations:
  • In addition to the routine preanesthetic evaluation, look for signs and symptoms of:
  • 1) OBSTRUCTION OR DISTORTION OF THE UPPER AIRWAY
  • 2) OBSTRUCTION OF THE SUPERIOR VENA CAVA
  • 3) IMPAIRED CEREBRAL CIRCULATION
slide11

Anesthetic technique:General anesthesia with muscle relaxation and positive pressure ventilation (facilitates dissection and management of complications, minimizes air embolism)

slide12
During mediastinoscopy the anesthesiologist attention is primarily focused on management of major complications which are:
  • Hemorrhage and hypovolemia
  • Compression of the great vessels
  • Pneumothorax
  • Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury
slide13
Significant (occasionally) massive hemorrhage: the most frequent major complication it requires immediate thoracotomy
the anesthesiologist should
The anesthesiologist should:
  • 1) Rapidly begin volume replacement through one or more large-bore intravenous cannulas that have been placed before induction of general anesthesia.
  • 2) Send for blood that was reserved for the patient preoperatively.
  • 3) Support the circulation pharmacologically until volume replacement is achieved
  • 4) Ensure adequate oxygenation and ventilation.
  • 5) Administer atropine for reflex bradycardia from aortic compression.
  • 6) Reduce or discontinue the dose of all anesthetic drugs until normovolemia is established.
  • 7) If hemorrhage originates from tear in the superior vena cava, a peripheral line should be rapidly placed in the lower extremity.
slide15
Compression of the great vessels:
  • The vessel most commonly compressed is the innominate artery:diminished blood flow to the right subclavian and right carotid arteries.

(This phenomenon of special significance in payients with preexisting compromised cerebral circulation)

the vessel most commonly compressed is the innominate artery management
The vessel most commonly compressed is the innominate artery: (management)
  • 1)Require monitoring of the right upper extremity blood pressure; via a right radial arterial line, or alternatively, a pulse oximeter probe on the right hand that signals diminution of the blood flow by changes in the signal strength.
  • 2) Any decrease in the right radial artery pressure requires repositioning of the mediastinoscope.
slide17
B) Mechanical stimulation of the aorta can cause arrhythmias, and compression of the aorta can cause reflex bradycardia.

Sudden changes in the pulse or the blood pressure during mediastinoscopy, may empirically be treated by repositioning of the mediastinoscope.

Atropine is given for persistent bradycardia.

slide18
Pneumothorax (usually seen postoperatively)

However patients should be monitored for signs of intraoperative pneumothorax:

  • Increased peak airway pressure
  • Tracheal shift
  • Distant breath sounds
  • Hypotension
  • Cyanosis

That requires immediate decompression

slide19
Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury:
  • The vocal cords should be visualized while the patient is spontaneously breathing (at the time of extubation).
  • Postoperative laryngeal obstruction is a problem if the vocal cords are not moving or in the midline.