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Systems. An overview . Respiratory . Inhale Oxygen Gas (O 2 ), Nitrogen Gas (N 2 ), and trace other gases Use only the O 2 Fun Facts:

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An overview


  • Inhale Oxygen Gas (O2), Nitrogen Gas(N2), and trace other gases

    • Use only the O2

  • Fun Facts:

    • Your lungs contain about 2,400 kilometers of airways and over 300 million alveoli. Spread out flat, all the alveoli would cover an area almost the size of half a tennis court.

    • When resting, you breathe in about 6 liters of air per a minute. On average, you breathe in about 23,000 times a day. It’s a good thing you do not have to think about every breath.

    • Air contains 21% oxygen; breathing pure oxygen is actually dangerous.

Respiratory pathway
Respiratory Pathway

  • Lungs

    • Alveoli

  • Capillaries

    • Pulmonary

  • Veins

    • Pulmonary

  • Heart

    • Left Atrium

    • Left Ventricle

  • Aorta

Respiratory pathway1
Respiratory Pathway

  • Arteries

    • Body

  • Capillaries

    • Body

    • Blood drops off oxygen and picks up carbon dioxide, red blood cells to complete cellular respiration

  • Veins

    • Body

  • Vena Cava

    • Vein

Respiratory pathway2
Respiratory Pathway

  • Heart

    • Right Atrium

    • Right Ventricle

  • Arteries

    • Pulmonary

  • Capillaries

    • Pulmonary


  • Physiology

    • Protects

      • Barrier

    • Regulates Temperature

      • Open/Closes sweat glands

    • Waterproof

      • Oil glands

    • Melanocytes

      • Protection from UV Rays

    • Sensory

      • Houses peripheral nerves


  • Fun Facts:

    • You are likely to shed almost 20 kilograms (44 pounds) of skin in your lifetime.

    • Everyday your sweat glands excrete an average of nearly 1 liter of moisture. If you take part in sports, go for a long run, or are out on a very hot day, you could sweat as much as 10 liters in a day.

    • The life span of each human hair is from three to seven years. About 80 hairs are likely to fall out of your head every day. But you do not need to worry, as you probably have about 100,000 hair follicles. Lost hairs are normally replaced when a new hair grows back in the same follicle. Hair loss in adults usually occurs when the hair follicles start to shrink. This makes hair thinner and weaker, and it causes what is called “pattern baldness.”


  • If the average male never shaved, his beard would be 4 meters long in his seventies.

  • The longest human hair in the world measures over 5 meters!

  • Blonde people tend to have more hairs on their bodies than dark-haired people do.

  • The top layer of your skin is called the epidermis. It is made from dead cells that are shed every 27 days.

  • A million dust mites live in your mattress and pillow. They feed on the dead skin cells that fall off your body at night.


  • Sweat glands in your skin help to control temperature. When you are hot they ooze sweat, which are 99 percent water and 1 percent salt. Feet sweat because there are 250,000 pores in the soles. Each foot squirts about 12 teaspoons of sweat a day.

  • If you could peel off an adult’s skin and stretch it out on the floor it would measure around 16 to 22 square feet, and weigh as much as 8.8 pounds.

  • Your toenails contain traces of gold.

  • Human hair was used to make soy sauce in some Chinese barber shops, until the government banned it.

  • Mats made of human hair were used in San Francisco to mop up oil that had leaked into the San Francisco Bay.


  • Physiology

    • Protects

      • Acts as a shield

      • Contains red marrow

        • Creates

          • RBC – Erythrocytes

          • WBC – Leucocytes

          • Platelets – Thrombocytes

  • Endoskeleton (Us) or Exoskeleton (Outside)

  • Cells that create the skeleton

    • Osteocyte


  • Endoskeleton Physiology

    • Structure/Shape/Form

    • Support

      • Pelvic Girdle and Vertebral Column

    • Movement

      • Skeletal muscles through tendons

    • Store

      • Calcium

      • Iron

      • Protein

      • Fat

      • Stem Cells


  • Endoskeleton Anatomy

    • Bones

    • Cartilage

    • Tendons

    • Ligaments

  • Fun Facts:

    • Bones are terrifically tough. In fact, a piece of bone the size of a matchbox is four times tougher than concrete.

    • Bones are living, growing parts of your body and make up around 20 percent of your weight.

    • If you break or fracture a bone, your body will instantly get to work on the repair job, growing new spongy bone in less than two weeks.

    • There are 206 bones in an adult’s body. Half of them are in the feet (52) and hands (54). Babies have around 300 soft bones, but some of these join together as the baby grows.

Circulatory or cardiovascular
Circulatory or Cardiovascular

  • Fun Facts:

    • The average adult’s body contains about 4.7 liters of blood, which makes up about 7 percent of total body weight. Life-sustaining blood is constantly being pumped through your 97,000 kilometer long network of blood vessels. This is farther than twice around the world!

    • Your heart beats approximately 100,000 times a day, keeping your whole body supplied with oxygen and nutrients, while clearing away harmful wastes. This is about 30 million heartbeats a year!

    • By age 70, your heart will have pumped 182 million liters of blood!

    • The human heart creates enough pressure to squirt blood for a distance of 9 meters.

    • A single red blood cell can carry about one billion packets of oxygen around your body. You have 25 trillion red blood cells.

    • One drop of blood contains around 5 million red blood cells.

    • At any moment, about 75 percent of your blood is in your veins, but only 5 percent is in your capillaries. The remaining 20 percent is in your arteries.

Circulatory or cardiovascular1
Circulatory or Cardiovascular

  • Transport Blood

    • Mostly liquid, with numerous cells and proteins suspended in it.

    • Making the blood “thicker” than pure water.

    • Plasma

      • Thrombocytes

        • Platelets

      • Erythrocytes

        • RBC

        • Exchange Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

        • Hemoglobin holds gases

      • Leucocytes

        • WBC

      • Hormones

      • Enzymes

      • Antibodies

      • Nutrients

      • Nitrogen Wastes

Circulatory or cardiovascular2
Circulatory or Cardiovascular

  • Organs

    • Heart

      • 4 Chambers

      • Cardiac Muscle

    • Veins and Arteries

      • Transporters

      • Smooth Muscle

    • Capillaries

      • Exchangers

      • Smooth Muscle


  • Physiology

    • Move

      • Internal

      • External

    • Creates Heat

    • Protects

    • Posture

  • Types

    • Smooth

      • Internal Organs

    • Skeletal

      • Striated

      • Attached to bones by tendons

    • Cardiac

      • Heart


  • Fun Facts:

    • When you run, the impact on your legs is three times your body weight. When you jump, the impact on your skeleton can reach 10 times your body weight. Your knee is a very complex joint with cartilage, which is made of a tough elastic material called collagen. This absorbs a lot of the shocks to your knees.

    • The largest muscle in your body is what you sit on. Its proper name is the gluteus maximus in the buttocks. But your strongest muscle relative to its size is your tongue. You probably exercise that one a lot, in fact, you also use about another 70 muscles for speaking.


  • Fun Facts:

    • You have over 30 muscles in your face, which you use to show surprise, happiness, or sadness. Try looking in the mirror and watch them at work. The tiny muscles in your eyes are the busiest of all. Scientists think they may move more than 100,000 times a day.

    • You use 11 face muscles to frown, 12 to smile, and 20 to kiss.

    • Turn your foot outward and you will be using 13 different muscles in your leg and 20 in the foot. Taking a simple step forward uses 54 muscles.

    • Humans have more than 600 muscles in their bodies, but caterpillars have more than 4,000.


  • Fun Facts:

    • Your body is about 2/3 water, and about half of this contained in your muscles.

    • The tiniest muscle in the body is called the stirrup. You have on inside each ear, and it is no bigger than this number 1.

    • Way back in the 1920s, performer Clarence Willard of the USA amazed audiences by growing 6 inches in height, just by stretching the muscles of his knees, hips, and throat.


  • Physiology

    • Only makes and secretes hormones

      • Which allow you to:

        • Grow

        • Develop

        • Regulate

    • Liquid dissolved in plasma

      • Transported by blood

      • Deposited at target tissue and causes a reaction

  • Protector Hormone

    • Adrenaline


  • Fun Facts:

    • When you are embarrassed or upset, your body releases a hormone called adrenaline. This speeds up your breathing and heart rate, which increases the blood flow to parts of your body, including your face. A surge of blood reaches your cheeks and you turn red.

    • The hormones produced during puberty reshape an adolescent’s brain structure. This is the cause of all those mood swings and stress. These issues continue until the brain finishes maturing.

    • Researchers have found that the age when puberty begins has been falling for the past 150 years. It has dropped three years within the past century alone, as a result of better public health and improved nutrition. But stress is another reason. Children feeling great stress in their lives tend to reach puberty earlier than average.


  • Physiology

    • Filters the blood of poisons

      • Nitrogen

      • Urea

      • Uric Acid

      • Ammonia

      • Keratin

    • Water Balance

    • Electrolyte balance

      • Minerals, Calcium, and Iron

    • Excretes nitrogen in the form of urine

    • Kidney

      • Filter blood to create urine

      • Nephrons

      • Dialysis


  • Fun Facts:

    • The average human releases 0.5 to 2.5 liters of gas per a day. That is enough to fill a balloon. You are not always aware of the releasing of gas unless it smells or makes a noise. Most people are estimated to pass gas an average of 12 times a day.

    • The liver has more than 500 different jobs, including cleaning the blood, storing vitamins, and preparing nutrients to be used by the body.

    • There are more than one million tiny tubes, or filters, in the kidneys. They are called nephrons and measure around 40 miles in total length.

    • One person produces enough urine to fill about 27- bathtubs during a lifetime.

    • Your liver is the second largest organ of your body and it can continue to work if 80 percent of it is removed. It will even grow back to its previous size.


  • Physiology

    • Ingest

    • Breakdown

      • Chemically (Breaking down to building blocks)

        • Enzymes

        • Saliva

          • Enzymes

      • Physically (Changing the size, shape, and feel)

        • Chew

        • Saliva

          • Mucus

        • Rugae

        • Peristalsis


  • Breakdown cont..

    • Proteins

      • Made up of Amino Acids (AA)

    • Pasta (Starch)

      • Glucose

  • Absorb Nutrients

    • Through the blood stream

  • Excrete waste

    • Through feces


  • Fun Facts:

    • It only takes a few seconds for food to go from your mouth to your stomach. But it takes your body around 12 hours to digest swallowed food completely. Even before it enters your stomach, chewed food has been soaked with saliva in your mouth. In fact, you produce an average over 500 milliliters of saliva a day. That’s almost 20,000 liters in a lifetime – a tanker load of saliva.

    • You will drink about 75,000 liters of water, and your digestive system may have to cope with about 50 tons of food. That’s like eating six elephants. You’ll excrete in solid waste the weight of one to two elephants!!


  • If you unraveled your esophagus, stomach, and intestines they would reach the height of a three-story building.

  • The acids in your stomach are so strong they could dissolve a razor blade.

  • It takes more brain power to work your thumb than your stomach.

  • Half a million new stomach cells are made by your body every minute.

  • The journey of food from mouth to anus can take more than 24 hours and covers around 23 feet.


  • Your teeth started growing about six months before you were born.

  • There are more than 500 types of bacteria in your mouth. Most of them are helpful bugs, but the bad ones rot your teeth or give you bad breath.

  • Girls are usually better at identifying flavors then boys, but boys prefer stronger flavors than girls. Teenagers don’t like sour-tasting foods.

  • Annika Irmler from Germany has a tongue that measures 2 ¾ inches. It is so long she can lick ice cream from the bottom of an ice-cream cone.


  • Fun Facts:

    • Your brain has over 100 billion neurons. The brain sends electric pulses that act as commands to other parts of your body through neurons. These pulses create enough electricity to power a light bulb. In fact, your brain uses more energy than any other organ, burning up 20 percent of the food you eat.

    • The right side of your brain controls muscles on the left side of your body, and the left side of your brain controls muscles on the right side of your body. Messages from the left side of your body cross over to the right side of your brain, and vice versa. This means that the damage to one side of the brain will affect the opposite side of the body.

    • Your brain is busy processing thousands of thoughts every hour. Information travels at different speeds within different types of neurons. Transmission can be as slow as 0.5 meters per second, or as fast as 120 meters per second. This is about 435 kilometers per hour.


  • Physiology

    • Regulates

    • Controls

    • Emotions

    • Decisions

  • Central Nervous System (CNS)

    • Brain and Spinal Cord

  • Also, peripheral nerves

    • Throughout entire body

  • Neurons

    • All your neurons are created at birth

    • Cannot be produced again


  • Your ear has over 25,000 tiny hair cells to help you hear sounds.

  • If your nose is working well, you should be able to tell the difference between 4,000 and 10,000 smells. There are about 10 million smell receptors in the space behind your nose, but they get weaker as you grow older. Your sense of smell is around 10,000 times more sensitive than your sense of taste.

  • There are up to 8,000 taste buds on your tongue. Taste buds detect sweet, sour, salty, savory, and bitter flavors. Tasting is about 80 percent smell, and your sense of smell increases when you are hungry. Over a 12-day period, your body makes a whole new set of taste buds.

  • You have at least five different types of nerve endings all over your skin. Most of these touch receptors are for pain. Others are sensitive to temperature, pressure, or irritation. Your skin is sensitive in the middle of your back. It is the most sensitive in your hands, fingertips, and lips.


  • Most people dream for about one or two hours per a night and have an average of four to seven dreams. If you wake up during a dream, you are much more likely to remember the dream than if you sleep soundly for a full night’s sleep.

  • Sleep stages:

    • Light Sleep: You are half asleep and your muscles relax, with some slight twitching

    • True Sleep: Your breathing and heart rate slow down.

    • Deep Sleep: Your brain waves are busy, but your breathing and heart rate fall further.

    • REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep: This usually begins about 70 to 90 minutes after you fall asleep. Your eyes dart around as your breathing rate and blood pressure rise. This is when most dreams occur. You will have around three to five REM episodes a night.

    • Randy Gardner, a 17-year old Californian student, set the record for the longest period without sleep in 1964. He lasted 11 days without sleep. Four days into the research, he began to hallucinating. He then became confused and thought he was a famous football player. His efforts have reportedly been surpassed since, but Guinness World Records stopped recognizing records for sleeplessness due to the potential bad efforts on health. The record is 18 days, 21 hours, and 40 minutes.


  • Boys are more likely to sleep walk than girls. About 18 percent of people worldwide are affected by sleepwalking at various times. Sleepwalking only occurs during deep sleep.

  • The muscles you use to blink are the fastest in your body, moving your eyelids at a speedy 14 inches a second 84 million times every year.

  • You lose around 1,600 of your eyelashes each year. Thankfully, new ones are always growing.

  • A newborn baby cannot make tears until it is around three weeks old.

  • It’s impossible to sneeze with your eyes open.

  • The retina has about 130 million cells for seeing black and white, but only 7 million for seeing colors. Humans can detect 500 shades of gray.

  • Playing an iPod on full volume could permanently damage your hearing after just 1 minute 29 seconds.


  • Beethoven was a famous composer of classical music. He continued to write and perform great music even when he lost his hearing!

  • Earwax can be yellow, orange, or brown, and gross old bits drop out of your ears at all times.

  • It takes just 0.02 of a second for your brain to realize when you have dropped a book on your toe.

  • A brain weighs about 3 pounds, but if all of the water was squeezed out, it would weigh just 10 ounces.

  • The brain cannot carry out any movement, since it has no muscle tissue.

  • At the age of 60, a person’s brain holds four times more information than it did at the age of 21.

  • Snails can sleep up to 3 years and sheep only need four hours of sleep.

Immune lymphatic

  • Physiology

    • Protect

      • Creates lymphocytes

        • Type of WBC in lymph nodes

    • Defends

      • Type One

        • Surrounds

        • Engulfs

        • Destroys

          • Process called Phagocytosis

      • Type Two

        • Antibodies

          • Chemical

          • Lymph Glands

    • Filter

      • Spleen

        • Recycles the WBC

Male reproduction
Male Reproduction

  • Physiology

    • Creates sperm

      • Meiosis

      • Spermatogenesis

    • Transports sperm to female

    • Makes and secretes testosterone

Female reproduction
Female Reproduction

  • Physiology

    • Creates egg

      • Meiosis

      • Oogenesis

    • Combine with sperm to create zygote

    • Houses and nourishes offspring

    • Ability to breast feed offspring

    • Make and secrete estrogen and progesterone


  • Fun Facts:

    • Menstruation:

      • The normal time each period lasts is 28 to 35 days.

      • On average, a period lasts two to seven days.

      • The average amount of blood lost is 35 milliliters.

    • The average adolescent girl has between 300,000 and 400,000 egg follicles. However, only about 350 eggs will mature during her lifetime. Monthly menstrual cycles cease when a woman reaches her forties or fifties.


  • Sperm is made in a male’s testicles. It takes about 72 days for one sperm to grow. Approximately 85 million sperm are produced each day by each testicle. Sperm continues to be produced each day by each testicle. Sperm continues to be produced throughout the man’s life. That could be over 1,000,000,000,000 sperm in his lifetime.

  • Three babies are born into the world every second.