Two basic model of leadership: • Traits • Behavior • Traits model of leadership • Based on observed characteristics of many leaders – both successful and unsuccessful – to predict leadership effectiveness. • Successful leaders have interest and abilities that are different from those of less effective leaders.
Key traits: • Intelligence = more intelligence than subordinate • Maturity and breadth = tend to be more emotionally mature and have a broad range of interest.
Inner motivation and achievement drive = are result oriented • When they achieve one goal, they seek another • They do not depend on employees for their motivation to achieve goal • Honesty = have integrity AND trustworthy.
Limitation is inadequate because: • There is no consistence patterns between specific traits or sets of traits and leadership effectiveness. • Always relate physical characteristic such as height, weight and health to effective leadership. • Leadership itself is complex.
Focus on what leaders actually do and how they do it. • Effective leaders help individuals and teams to achieve their goal in 2 way: • First: they build task-centered relations and focus on the quality and quantity of work accomplished. • Second: they are considerate and supportive of employees; attempts to achieve personal goals.
Example: work satisfaction ,promotions recognition and • Work hard to settle disputes keeping people happy, provide encouragement and giving positive reinforcement
OHIO STATE THEORY • Consideration - leader concerned with subordinates feelings and respects subordinate and relationship is characterized by mutual, trust, respect, 2-way communication. • Initiating structure - the leader clearly defined the leader subordinates roles so that subordinates know what is expected of them. The leaders establish channels of communication and determines the methods for accomplishing the group’s task.” (e.g.p. 16)
MICHIGAN STUDIES • Job centered – leader pays close attention to the work of subordinates, explains work procedures & is interested in performance – main concern is efficient completion of task. • Employee centered - leader attempts to build effective work groups with high performance goals. Leaders main concern is with high performance, but that was to be accomplished by paying attention to the human aspects of the group. opposite ends job centered employee centered
LEADERSHIP GRID • A framework for portraying types of leadership behavior and their various potential combination. • 2 dimension: concern production and concern for people
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (9,9) (1,9) Concern for people (5,5) (1,1) (9,1) Concern for production
(1,1) – low people, low production • (9,1) – high production, low people • (1,9) – high people, low production • (5,5) – balance (50% of both) • (9,9) – most effective leadership note : (9 represents high concern) ( 1 represents low concern)
TANNENBAUM SCHMIDT LEADERSHIP GRID • TELLING • SELLING • CONSULTING • JOINING
LEADERSHIP STYLE (Use of Authority by Leader) GROUP PARTICIPATION (Areas of Freedom of the Group) Gives group Freedom to define problem and decide. Present problem; ask for ideas; decides. Announces decision permits questions. Presents problems and boundaries; group decides. Action: Leader decides; Announces decision. Present tentative decision; consults group and decides. “sells” decisions to group LEADER CENTERED TEAM CENTERED
Educational leadership theory Prof. Dr. ZaidatolAkmaliah Lope Pihie September 2014