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Chapter 37 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 37
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  1. Chapter 37 The Eisenhower Era

  2. I. Affluence and Its Anxieties • Home construction • Electronics (first computer) • Women’s roles -back home -The Feminine Mystique

  3. II. Consumer Culture • First Credit Card • TV • Televangelists (Billy Graham) • Rock ‘n’ roll • The Organization Man

  4. III. The Advent of Eisenhower • 1952-Stevenson v. Eisenhower “I like Ike” Nixon-Checkers speech B) Korea-7 months after becoming president -54k died -billions spent

  5. IV. Rise and Fall of Joseph McCarthy • McCarthy-accused demsof being communist • McCarthyism-suspicion and fear of communism • Army-McCarthy Hearings-McCarthy cut his own throat

  6. V. Desegregating American Society • Jim Crow Laws-segregation in South • Lynching of 6 WWII vets C) Emmett Till-mobbed for leering a white woman D) Paul Robeson-spread word of maltreatment in US in Europe E) Jackie Robinson-broke color barrier by being drafted by Dodgers in 1947 F) Rosa Parks-12/55-arrested for not moving G) Montgomery Bus Boycott-year long boycott-no longer living by white absurdities

  7. VI. Seeds of the Civil Rights Revolution • Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) -Reversed Plessy vs. Ferguson -only branch to deal with segregation -2 years later, only 2% desegregated in schools B) Central High School-Little Rock-1957 -federal students sent in to escort 9 students

  8. C) MLK Jr.-Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957 -black churches tied to civil rights D) Sit-in movement in Greensboro NC -demanded service at white’s only diner E) Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

  9. VII. Eisenhower Republicanism at Home • Eisenhower-small gov’t -transfer of offshore oil to state gov’ts -curb TVA -condemned anti-polio vaccine as Socialist B) Operation Wetback -removed 1 million Mexicans back to Mexico in 1954 as they undermined the Bracero program C) Tried to terminate Indian tribes as legal entities

  10. D) Federal Highway Act of 1956 -necessary for defense (incase of Soviet invasion) -$27 billion for 42k miles of roads -destroyed downtowns in major cities

  11. VIII. A “New Look” in Foreign Policy • Policy of Boldness-use Strategic Air Command to carry nuclear bombs to flatten cities • Nikita Khrushchev-rejected Ike’s open skies for inspection plan • Hungarian Uprising-1956-fell on deaf American ears as the Soviets crushed them

  12. IX. The Vietnam Nightmare • French controlled Indochina -Ho Chi Minh-freedom-inspired by Wilson and FDR -went communist B) Battle of Dien Bien Phu-French lost -Vietnam divided -elections in 2 years -US Supported Ngo Dinh Diem of South -elections never game -guerilla warfare heating up

  13. X. Cold War Crises in Europe and the Middle East • 1955-Warsaw Pact • 1955-Soviets withdrew from Austria • Suez Crisis -Nasser wanted dam on Nile -US withdrew offer to finance after he flirted with the Soviets -declared Suez Canal nationalized -France and England send it troops -US refuses support -Gain for Egypt

  14. D) Iran-US put Shah in place to keep oil interests in 1953 E) OPEC-1960-Middle East’s new control on Western Nations

  15. XI. Round Two for Ike • Ike vs Adlai Stevenson again -he won 457 to 73 in the electoral college B) Landrum-Griffin Act-1959 -Labor Unions had pay consequences for financial shenanigans and bullying tactics C) Sputnik-10/4/57-launched by USSR -inspired National Defense Education Act (NDEA) in 58 for study of sciences and languages

  16. XII. The Continuing Cold War • Stop testing of nuclear weaopons -damaging the atmosphere -both US and USSR stopped B) Spirit of Camp David-USSR to leave Berlin C) Paris Summit-spirit died—American plane shot down in USSR

  17. XIII. Cuba’s Castroism Spells Communism • US not giving aid to its southern neighbors -supporting dictators who claim to be fighting communism B) Fulgencio Batista-Cuban dictator-huge investments of American capital C) Fidel Castro-successful revolution-seized American lands -US-embargo -broke diplomatic relations in 1961

  18. XIV. Kennedy Challenges Nixon for the Presidency A) Nixon (R) -VP for Eisenhower -kitchen debate-American consumerism better than Soviet economic planning B) John F. Kennedy (D) -Roman Catholic -won via TV-helped portray his image -303 electoral votes but only by 118.5k popular C) Democrats control both houses of Congress

  19. XV. An Old General Fades Away • Eisenhower-universally admired • Vetoed Democratic Congress 169 times • St. Lawrence Seaway opened up • Woven in New Deal Programs • Admitted AK and HI into the US

  20. XVI. A Cultural Renaissance • NY-art capital of the world after WWII • Jackson Pollock-abstract expressionism-modern art • Pop music • International Style Architecture-UN headquarters, Sears Tower, and John Hancock Tower • JFK Airport and Gateway Arch

  21. F) Gains in Literature -John Steinbeck- “East of Eden” -Rabbit Series-John Updike -Ezra Pound -Beat Poets -Robert Lowell Tennessee Williams-”A Streetcar Named Desire” -Arthur Miller “Death of a Salesman” -J.D. Salinger “The Catcher in the Rye” G) Southern Renaissance-life in south after war -William Faulkner