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1 st Constitution . Articles of Confederation. Approved November 15, 1777 Est. “a firm league of friendship” between the states Needed the ratification of the 13 states March 1, 1781 Second Continental Congress declared the Articles effective. Powers of Congress: Make war and peace

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articles of confederation
Articles of Confederation
  • Approved November 15, 1777
  • Est. “a firm league of friendship” between the states
  • Needed the ratification of the 13 states
  • March 1, 1781 Second Continental Congress declared the Articles effective
articles of confederation1
Powers of Congress:

Make war and peace

Send and receive ambassadors

Make treaties

Borrow money

Set up a money system

Est. post offices

Build a navy

Raise an army by asking the states for troops

Fix uniform standards of weights and measures

Settle disputes amoung the states

Articles of Confederation
articles of confederation2
States Obligations:

Pledge to obey the Articles and Acts of the Congress

Provide the funds and troops requested by the congress

Treat citizens of other states fairly and equally

Give full faith and credit to public acts, records, and judicial proceedings

Submit disputes to congress for settlement

Allow open travel and trade b/w and among states

Primarily responsible for protecting life and property

Accountable for promoting the general welfare of the people

Articles of Confederation
compromises addressed before the constitution would be approved responses to the new constitution

Compromises addressed before the constitution would be approved; Responses to the new constitution

the virginia plan called for a new government
The Virginia Plan: Called for a NEW Government
  • Three Separate branches of government
    • Legislature, Executive, and Judicial
  • Bicameral legislature
    • Based on population or money given to support the central government
    • Members of House of Reps = based on population
    • Senate = chosen by House from a list from the State Legislature
    • Congress would be given powers it had under the A of C
    • Veto any State law that conflicted with National Law
the virginia plan called for a new government1
The Virginia Plan: Called for a NEW Government
  • “National Executive” and “National Judiciary”
    • Council of Revision
    • Veto acts passed by Congress (but can be overridden by Congress)
  • State officers should take an Oath to a Union
  • Admit new States to the Union
the new jersey plan
The New Jersey Plan
  • Unicameral Congress of the Confederation
    • Each state equally represented
  • Add closely limited powers
    • Tax and regulate trade
  • Federal Executive
    • More than one person
    • Chosen by Congress/could be removed with maj. Vote
  • Federal Judiciary
    • Single “supreme Tribunal”
    • Selected by Executive
differences between the plans
Differences between the plans
  • How should the states be represented in Congress?
    • Based on population?
    • Financial contribution?
    • State equality?
  • 4 weeks they deliberated
    • Heated debate
    • Lines drawn in the sand
the compromises
The Compromises
  • Connecticut Compromise
    • Two houses
    • Senate – equal representation
    • House – proportional representation
  • Combination of Virginia and New Jersey plans
  • AKA: The Great Compromise
the compromises1
The Compromises
  • Three-Fifths Compromise
    • Should Slaves be counted?
    • Split North v South
    • All “free person’s” will be counted; 3/5 of all other persons
    • Southerners could count slaves but had to pay taxes on them
the compromises2
The Compromises
  • The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromises
    • Congress = power to regulate foreign and interstate trade
    • Scared southerners
    • Congress: forbidden the power to tax the export of goods from any state
    • Could not act on the slave trade for 20 years
influences on the new constitution
Influences on the New Constitution
  • The Framers were familiar with the political writings of their time
    • Jean Jacques Rousseau (Social Contract Theory)
    • John Locke (Two Treaties of Government).
  • They also were seasoned by
    • The Second Continental Congress,
    • The Articles of Confederation and
    • Experiences with their own State governments.
reactions to the new constitution
Reactions tothe New Constitution
  • When the Constitution was complete, the Framers’ opinions of their work varied. Some were disappointed, like George Mason of Virginia, who opposed the Constitution until his death in 1792.
  • Most agreed with Ben Franklin’s thoughts when he said,
  • “From such an assembly [of fallible men] can a perfect production be expected? It…astonishes me, Sir, to find this system approaching so near to perfection as it does…”
ratifying the constitution

Articles of Confederation were weak

argued for the ratification of the Constitution.

James Madison

Alexander Hamilton


objected to the Constitution for including the strong central government

the lack of a bill of rights.

Patrick Henry, John Hancock, Samuel Adams

Ratifying the Constitution
the constitution is ratified
The Constitution is Ratified
  • Nine States ratified the Constitution by June 21, 1788, but the new government needed the ratification of the large States of New York and Virginia.
  • Great debates were held in both States, with Virginia ratifying the Constitution June 25, 1788.
  • New York’s ratification was hard fought. Supporters of the Constitution published a series of essays known as The Federalist.
inaugurating the government
Inaugurating the Government
  • The new Congress met for the first time on March 4, 1789.
  • Congress finally attained a quorum (majority) on April 6 and counted the electoral votes. Congress found that George Washington had been unanimously elected President. He was inaugurated on April 30.
how a bill becomes a law

How a bill becomes a LAW

Don’t forget you have a graphic organizer with this information on it !


Step 6: Full House/Senate: bill is debated; amendments are offered and a vote is taken, (if the bill is different than the original….it goes to conference committee)

Step 1: Someone has an idea for a bill

Step 2: Bill is introduced into the House or Senate by a member and assigned to a committee, who refers to the subcommittees

Step 7: Conference committee: composed of members of both houses and they meet to iron out the differences between the bills, the compromised bill is returned to both houses for a second vote.

Step 3: Subcommittees performs studies, holds hearings, and makes revisions. If approved the bill goes to FULL committee.

Step 8: Full House/Senate: votes on the compromised bill; if bill passes it is sent to the President

Step 4: Committee: FULL committee may amend or rewrite the bill, decides whether to send it to the floor or “kill” the bill

Step 9: President: sign or veto’s the bill; congress may override the veto by a 2/3 vote in both the House and Senate

Step 10: If veto stands = Bill is KILLED; if President Signs = BILL BECOMES A LAW

Step 5: Rules committee (house only): issues rules on debate (senate: leadership decides)