UNIT 5: THE GREAT DEPRESSION AND THE NEW DEAL • All of you will be expected to: • Describe the monetary issues that made it necessary to create the Federal Reserve. (11.6.1) • Describe which sectors of the economy were weak in the late 1920s (leading to depression). (11.6.1) • Understand the explanations for the causes of the Great Depression. (11.6.1) • Understand what the Federal Reserve, Congress, and the President did to try and fix the economic crises. (11.6.2)
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS • What happens to average working people during an economic depression? • How does the Federal Reserve work and how does it affect our lives? • How did the New Deal expand the role of government during the 1930s (WPA, Social Security, Labor Relations Board, Tennessee Valley Authority)? • What did workers do to fight for their rights? How did labor unions grow in response to the depression (AFL, CIO, United Farm Workers)?
WHAT IS THE FEDERAL RESERVE? • Created in 1913 to restructure the nation’s banking system (after the financial panic of 1907 and complaints of lack of liquidity). • System of banks owned by the Federal government. • President appoints the board of governors and the chairman. • Has 12 banks in major cities across the U.S. • Manages the money supply (tries to maintain a stable and elastic currency) • Can print money. • Controls interest rates. • Sets monetary policy to influence the flow of money and credit into the economy – the banker’s bank
CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION • The uneven distribution of wealth (gap between rich and poor) • Over-speculation • Over-production • Farming crises • Consumer credit • 1929 financial panic/stock market crash • 1929 Federal Reserve failed to secure adequate money supply. • Dust storms in the Midwestern states (Dust Bowl)
EFFECTS OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION • American loss of self-worth. • Poor farmers from Oklahoma and other Midwestern states migrated to California looking for work. • Unemployment rate of 25% when FDR was elected. • Poverty, hunger, food shortage, unemployment • New Deal programs to try and fix economy and expanded role for federal government.
HERBERT HOOVER’S POLICIES • Asked business sector to put in place voluntary controls. • Established the “Emergency Committee for Employment” to coordinate volunteer relief efforts. • Set up the Reconstruction Finance Corporation and the National Credit Corporation. • Authorized 2 billion to state and local governments. • Alienated voters by calling for an increase in taxes. (Just like what a vacuum does: his policies sucked)
GREAT DEPRESSION ART PROJECT • One of the best ways to learn something is to develop empathy. One of the best ways to empathize is through art. • Having seen images from the great depression, take 15 minutes to decide on your Great Depression art project and begin mapping it out. • The projects are due Thursday 12/11
HOWARD ZINN: A PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION • Self-Help in Hard Times Review: • 1. Why did the Seattle general strike end after five days? • 2. What did it symbolize to business and government elite? • 3. Why were there so many strikes after WWI? • 4. Why is the depiction of the 1920s as prosperous and “roaring” a misleading one?
FAILURE IS IMPOSSIBLE • Take the time to learn your lines. • One group will do a read through for the class and we will follow along paying special attention to our parts.
EXIT TICKET AND HOMEWORK • What will you do to prepare for Wednesday’s test on the Zinn chapter? • What will you do to learn your lines? • HOMEWORK • TEST on the Zinn chapter Wed. 12/10. • Great Depression art project due Thurs. 12/12 • Learn your lines for Failure is Impossible ASAP
U.S. HISTORY Mr. Weber, Monday 15, 2008
ACTIVATOR • Progress reports come out this week. • 1. do you know what assignments you are missing (if any)? • 2. Are you happy with the level of work you have been doing? • 3. Do you feel you are receiving the grade you deserve? • 4. What specific things might you do to improve you the quality of your work (and your grade)?
AGENDA • Activator, agenda, and objective (10 minutes) • Review of unit understandings (5 minutes) • Multiple choice practice questions (30 minutes) • Letter to the President-Elect regarding lessons from the New Deal (30 minutes) • Decade of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation during the 1930s reading (15 minutes) • Letter to the Textbook editors (20 minutes) • Failure is Impossible (remaining time) • Exit ticket and homework (5 minutes)
OBJECTIVE 1. You will understand what the Federal Reserve, Congress, and the President did to try and fix the economic crises. (11.6.2) 2. You will finish your letter to the President-Elect explaining what to do and what to avoid based on what you have learned about FDR’s New Deal. 3. You will learn about Mexican repatriation in the 1930s and write a letter to the textbook editors asking that they include this in the next edition of the textbook.
UNIT 5: GREAT DEPRESSION AND THE NEW DEAL UNDERSTANDINGS • The Great Depression was primarily caused the uneven distribution of wealth (even though over-speculation, over-production, the farming crises, and consumer credit were also key factors). • - The stock market is fickle and is driven by people’s confidence and trust (fear of investment losses causes panic, for example). • - The Federal Reserve restructured the nation’s banking system and has the power to set interest rates as well as print money! • - New Deal programs did create jobs, art, and recreation but also expanded the role of the Federal government. • - The Social Security Act provided help for the disabled, unemployed, and elderly. • - President Hoover went about fixing the economy the wrong way: asking businesses to put voluntary restrictions in place, calling for increased taxes, etc. • - FDR expanded the role of government with his New Deal. • - Poor farmers from the Dust Bowl migrated to California. • - Labor Unions enjoyed strengthened support.
MULTIPLE CHOICE PRACTICE • The Panic of 1907 led to the formation of • A) the Clayton Antitrust Act. • B) the Federal Trade Commission. • C) the Federal Reserve system. • D) the Bull Moose Party. • The Federal Reserve was created • A) with Herbert Hoover as its first director. • B) by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. • C) to coin silver as a currency. • D) to restructure the nation's banking system.
MULTIPLE CHOICE PRACTICE • Over-speculation • overproduction • farming crisis • consumer credit/debtThe events listed above led to • A) the Great Migration. • B) World War I. • C) the Great Depression. • D) the Industrial Revolution. • Which of the following caused investors to engage in panic selling in 1929? • A) the fear of further investment losses. • B) government legislation to increase taxes. • C) inflated prices for agricultural goods. • D) an influx of foreign investments.
MULTIPLE CHOICE PRACTICE • Which program provided new jobs, cheap electric power, flood control, and recreation for its region? • A) National Recovery Act • B) Civilian Conservation Corp • C) Tennessee Valley Authority • D) Agricultural Adjustment Act • A main cause of the Great Depression was the • A) increasing amount of cash purchases. • B) low interest rates charged by banks. • C) overregulation of big business. • D) uneven distribution of wealth.
MULTIPLE CHOICE PRACTICE • Which New Deal agency was created to increase industrial production? • A) Tennessee Valley Authority • B) Home Owner's Loan Corporation • C) Federal Reserve Board • D) National Recovery Administration • President Hoover believed that the best way to end the Depression was to • A) set up federal relief and job programs. • B) lower import duties and eliminate the tariff. • C) ask Congress to approve government spending programs. • D) ask the business sector to put in place voluntary controls.
MULTIPLE CHOICE PRACTICE • Aid for the disabled • unemployment insurance • old age pensions. Which New Deal program provided the services listed above? • A) Federal Emergency Relief Administration • B) Social Security Act • C) Civilian Conservation Corps • D) National Recovery Administration • The purpose of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 was to • A) make farmers more efficient. • B) limit farm production. • C) raise the standard of living of tenant farmers. • D) resettle farmers who lost their homes as result of the droughts.
MULTIPLE CHOICE PRACTICE • Over production • decline in farm prices • stock market speculation The factors listed above led to the • A) Federal Reserves easing of the money .supply • B) structural weakness in the American economy. • C) technology boom of the 1930s. • D) rise of organized crime. • At the beginning of the economic depression (1929) the Federal Reserve • A) failed to assure an adequate money supply. • B) failed to print enough money. • C) took control of the failing banks. • D) made debt payments for U.S. industries.
MULTIPLE CHOICE PRACTICE • As a response to the economic depression in October 1930, President Herbert Hoover established the coordination of volunteer relief agencies under the umbrella of the • A)Glass Steagall Act. • B) New Deal programs. • C) Fair Deal programs. • D) Emergency Committee for Employment. • Emergency Committee for Employment • National Credit Corporation • Reconstruction Finance Corporation. The agencies listed above were attempts to respond to the economic decline by President • A. Warren G. Harding. • B. Calvin Coolidge. • C. Herbert Hoover. • D. Franklin D. Roosevelt.
MULTIPLE CHOICE PRACTICE • Legislation signed by President Herbert Hoover authorized $2 billion to state and local governments for public works programs under which of the following? • A. Emergency Committee for Employment • B. Reconstruction Finance Corporation • C. Glass-Steagall Act • D. Progress Works Act • President Herbert Hoover alienated voters when he • A. funded a new agency, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. • B. signed the Glass-Steagall Act. • C. called for an increase in taxes. • D. called for a one-year moratorium on paying war debts.
MULTIPLE CHOICE PRACTICE • An unemployment rate of 25 percent was a factor responsible for the election of • A. Herbert Hoover. • B. Harry Truman. • C. Calvin Coolidge. • D. Franklin D. Roosevelt. • Perhaps the greatest effect of the Great Depression on average Americans was the loss of • A. mobility. • B. faith in President Roosevelt. • C. government relief programs. • D. self-worth.
MULTIPLE CHOICE PRACTICE • As a result of dust storms, farmers in the Great Plains abandoned their farms to move to California in order to • A. work in large industries. • B. receive unemployment benefits. • C. homestead new farms. • D. work in military factories. • The largest project undertaken during President Roosevelt's New Deal was the • A. Civilian Conservation Corps. • B. Tennessee Valley Authority. • C. Pubic Works Administration. • D. Agricultural Adjustment Act.
MULTIPLE CHOICE PRACTICE • As a result of the New Deal, • A) Harry S. Truman was elected president. • B) the role of the government expanded. • C) the rights of women increased. • D) Project Head Start was developed. • FINISHED! • Count the number of correct answers you got. • Write it at the bottom of the page.
LETTER TO THE PRESIDENT-ELECT[BASED ON NOTES FROM CH. 23] Dear President-Elect Obama, We are writing to express our deep concern over the current financial crises. As juniors, we have been studying the Great Depression and the New Deal and have come to see many parallels between the past situation and the present. Studying Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “New Deal” programs, has inspired us to contact you and let you know what we think worked well as well as what, in our humble opinion, did not work so well. As you are undoubtedly aware, the Tennessee Valley Authority, for example, created much needed jobs as well as recreation and a renewed sense of purpose for people in one of the poorest and most underdeveloped regions of the country. The hydroelectric project generated a tremendous amount of electricity and stimulated the economy once again. Our country is in need of the modern Tennessee Valley Authority project. We are hoping you will take this country in the direction of energy independence by investing in renewable energy and create those “Green Jobs.” Creating jobs would not only reduce unemployment but also make good on your campaign promises and inspirational message of hope and change.
DECADE OF BETRAYAL: MEXICAN REPATRIATION IN THE 1930S • Read (6 pages total) • 1. The USA Today article entitled “U.S. Urged to Apologize for the 1930s Deportations.” • 2. The article “Some Stories Hard to Get in History Books.” • 3. “Repatriation” summary on back. • Answer the comprehension check questions. • Write a letter to the textbook editors.
READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS • 1. How many Mexicans and Mexican-Americans were forced to leave the U.S. in the 1930s? • 2. What methods were used to force migration? • 3. What did CA Representative Hilda Solis want? • 4. What was CA the first state to do? • 5. What percent of people forced to leave were U.S. citizens? • 6. In what year and for what reason did the U.S. tighten visa rules? • 7. What forms of harassment did Mexican-Americans face? • 8. What was the racist slogan that went out in LA? • 9. Were they told they could return? • 10. How many textbooks of the ones they studied actually wrote about the repatriation?
WRITING A LETTER TO THE TEXTBOOK EDITORS • Andrew Cayton, Elisabeth I. Perry, Linda Reed, and Allan M. Winkler, eds. America: Pathways to the Present. Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. • How many pages long is the textbook? • How many pages deal with the Great Depression? • Can you find mention of the Repatriation of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans in chapter 22? • Your letter must be at least 1-2 pages and is due Thursday 12/18.
HOMEWORK • Letter to the President Elect (and assessment of your understanding of the New Deal) DUE 12/15 or 12/17 • Debate on social security and welfare Wed. 12/17 (prepare for summative assessment) • Letter to the textbook editors due Thursday 12/18. • Failure is impossible Thursday 12/18. • Notebooks due Thursday. Make up missing work!
The New Deal: The Works Progress Administration
ACTIVATOR • If you were elected President in 1932 (as FDR was), what specific things would you do to try and help people get through the Great Depression? Explain…
AGENDA • Activator, agenda, and objective (10 minutes) • Lessons from the New Deal reading (45 minutes) • Letter to President Elect Obama (30 minutes) • WPA slide show (15 minutes) • Debate Resolution (5 minutes) • Failure is Impossible (time permitting)
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS • What happens to average working people during a depression? • How does the Federal Reserve work and how does it affect our lives? • How did the New Deal expand the role of government during the 1930s (WPA, Social Security, Labor Relations Board, Tennessee Valley Authority)?
OBJECTIVE All students will… Make connections between what FDR did to try and fix the economic problems of the Great Depression and what President elect Obama may try to do to fix our current economic crises. Write a letter to the president explaining the lessons we learned from the New Deal
CHAPTER 22: CRASH AND DEPRESSION 1929-1933 PP.738-761 • The Stock Market crash (1929) • Social effects of the great depression (poverty, Hoovervilles, dust bowl) • Surviving the Great Depression • The Election of 1932
CHAPTER 23: THE NEW DEAL 1933-1941, PP.766-793 • Forging a New Deal • First 100 days • Providing relief and creating jobs • Assisting homeowners and farmers • Agricultural Adjustment Administration • Tennessee Valley Authority • The Second New Deal • Major New Deal Agencies • Social Security • The New Deal’s Critics
WRITING A LETTER TO THE PRESIDENT • Use the information you gathered from the textbook chapter to write a letter to President elect Obama instructing him on what worked and what to avoid in trying to fix an economic crises. • Show your understanding of New Deal policies and of the criticisms of the New Deal. • Your letter must explain the following terms…
YOUR LETTER MUST EXPLAIN AND ADDRESS THE FOLLOWING KEY TERMS • 1. First hundred days; stabilizing banks • 2. Federal Emergency Relief Administration • 3. Public Works Programs (CWA) • 4. Regulating the Economy (National Recovery Administration or NRA) • 5. Assisting Homeowners and Farmers (AAA and TVA) • 6. The Second New Deal (WPA, Wagner Act, National Labor Relations Board, Social Security) • 7. New Deal’s Critics (Women, African Americans, Political critics, Modern-day critics)
HOWARD ZINN’S CRITICISM • New Deal legislation was intended to reorganize capitalism in such a way as to overcome the crises and stabilize the system; also, to head off the alarming growth of spontaneous rebellion…