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SIKLUS SEL. Made Pharmawati. Figure 12.1. Kontinuitas kehidupan Didasarkan atas reproduksi sel atau pembelahan sel. 100 µm. (a) Reproduction. An amoeba, a single-celled eukaryote, is dividing into two cells. Each new cell will be an individual organism (LM). 200 µm.

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siklus sel

SIKLUS SEL

Made Pharmawati

slide2

Figure 12.1

Kontinuitas kehidupan

Didasarkan atas reproduksi sel atau pembelahan sel

slide3

100 µm

(a) Reproduction. An amoeba, a single-celled eukaryote, is dividing into two cells. Each new cell will be an individual organism (LM).

slide4

200 µm

20 µm

(b) Growth and development. This micrograph shows a sand dollar embryo shortly after the fertilized egg divided, forming two cells (LM).

(c) Tissue renewal. These dividing bone marrow cells (arrow) will give rise to new blood cells (LM).

Figure 12.2 B, C

  • Organisme multiseluler tergantung pada pembelahan sel untuk:
    • Perkembangan (dari sel yang terfertilisasi)
    • Pertumbuhan
    • Repair
slide5

Semua organisme kompleks berasal dari a single fertilized egg.

Melalui pembelahan sel, jumlah sel meningkat

Sel kemudian terspesialisasi dan berubah menjadi fungsinya masing2

tipe pembelahan sel
Tipe pembelahan sel
  • Mitosis:
    • Growth, development & repair
    • Asexual reproduction (yields identical cells)
    • Occurs in somatic (body) cells
  • Meiosis:
    • Sexual reproduction (yields different cells)
    • Occurs in specific reproductive cells
slide7

Phases of Mitosis

1. Prophase

2. Prometaphase

3. Metaphase

4. Anaphase

5. Telophase

  • Pembelahan sel menghasilkan sel anak yang secara genetik identik
  • Sel harus menduplikasikan material genetiknya
    • Before they divide, ensuring that each daughter cell receives an exact copy of the genetic material, DNA
distribution of chromosomes during cell division
Distribution of Chromosomes During Cell Division
  • Padapersiapancell division, DNA bereplikasidankromosommemadat
  • Tiap chromosome yang terduplikasimemilikiduasister chromatids, yang berpisahselama cell division
  • Sentromermerupakandaerahcekingdari chromosome yang terduplikasi, diamanduachromatidsterikatdengandekat
slide9

Figure 12.1

metahase

Anaphase

prophase

Telophase

Cytokinesis

1X

cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells
Cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells
  • Sel menduplikasikan material genetik sebelum membelah, utk memastikan bahwa tiap sel anak menerima copy DNA dengan tepat
  • A cell’s endowment of DNA (its genetic information) is called its genome
  • Molekul DNA dalam sel ter-pack menjadi kromosom
slide11
SetiapspesieseukariotmemilikisejumlahtertentukromosompadanukleusSetiapspesieseukariotmemilikisejumlahtertentukromosompadanukleus
  • Selsomatik(nonreproductive) memiliki 2 set kromosom
  • Gamet(reproductive cells: sperm and eggs) memilikijumlahkromosomsetengahjumlahkromosomselsomatik
  • Kromosomeukaryotikterdiridarikromatin, sebuahkomplex DNA dan protein yang memampatselamapembelahansel
slide13

0.5 µm

A eukaryotic cell has multiplechromosomes, one of which is represented here. Before duplication, each chromosomehas a single DNA molecule.

Chromosomeduplication(including DNA synthesis)

Once duplicated, a chromosomeconsists of two sister chromatidsconnected at the centromere. Eachchromatid contains a copy of the DNA molecule.

Centromere

Sisterchromatids

Separation of sister chromatids

Mechanical processes separate the sister chromatids into two chromosomes and distribute them to two daughter cells.

Centromeres

Sister chromatids

Figure 12.4

slide14
Pembelahan sel pada eukariot terdiri dari:
    • Mitosis, the division of the nucleus
    • Cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm
  • Gamet diproduksi dalam pembelahan sel yang disebut meiosis
  • Meiosis menghasilkan sel anak yang tidak identik dengan induk yaitu hanya memiliki 1 set kromosom
pada pembelahan sel fase mitosis bergantian dengan interfase
Pada pembelahan sel, fase mitosis bergantian dengan interfase
  • Pada tahun 1882, ahli anatomi Jerman Walther Flemming mengembangkan pewarna untuk mengamati kromosom selama mitosis dan sitokinesis
  • Bagi Flemming, terlihat sel tumbuh membesar
  • Sekarang dapat diketahui banyak peristiwa kritis terjadi selama tahapan siklus sel
fase fase dalam siklus sel

INTERPHASE

S(DNA synthesis)

G1

CytokinesisMitosis

G2

MITOTIC(M) PHASE

Figure 12.5

Fase-fase dalam siklus sel
  • Siklus sel terdiri dari
    • Fase mitosis
    • Interphase
  • Interphase
    • G1 phase
    • S phase
    • G2 phase
  • The mitotic phase
    • mitosis
    • cytokinesis
phases of the cell cycle
Phases of the Cell Cycle
  • Siklusselterdiridari
    • Mitotic (M) phase (mitosis and cytokinesis)
    • Interphase(cell growth and copying of chromosomes in preparation for cell division)
  • Interphase(terdiridarisekitar 90% darisiklussel) yang dapatdibagidalam sub fase:
    • G1 phase (“first gap”)
    • S phase (“synthesis”)
    • G2 phase (“second gap”)
slide19

G2 OF INTERPHASE

PROMETAPHASE

PROPHASE

Centrosomes(with centriole pairs)

Aster

Fragmentsof nuclearenvelope

Early mitoticspindle

Kinetochore

Chromatin(duplicated)

Centromere

Nonkinetochoremicrotubules

Kinetochore microtubule

Chromosome, consistingof two sister chromatids

Nuclearenvelope

Plasmamembrane

Nucleolus

Figure 12.6

  • Mitosis terdiri dari 5 phases
    • Prophase
    • Prometaphase
slide20

METAPHASE

ANAPHASE

TELOPHASE AND CYTOKINESIS

Metaphaseplate

Cleavagefurrow

Nucleolusforming

Nuclear envelopeforming

Daughter chromosomes

Centrosome at one spindle pole

Spindle

Figure 12.6

  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase
slide21

The mitotic spindle

    • mikrotubul yang mengontrol pergerakan kromosom selama mitosis
  • Spindle muncul dari sentromer
    • spindle microtubules
    • asters
slide22
Perakitan spindle microtubules dimulaidarisentrosom - microtubule organizing center
  • Sentrosombereplikasimembentukduasentrosom yang bermigrasikekutub yang berlawanan, dan spindle microtubules tumbuhdarisentrosom
  • Aster(a radial array of short microtubules) munculdaritiapsentrosom
the spindle
The Spindle

Spindle memiliki struktur seperti web terbuat dari microtubule . Sangat penting pada mitosis karena mengatur kromosom untuk berada pada posisi yang benar

Mitotic center

A cell atmetaphase

a spindle

Microtubule

slide24

Aster

Centrosome

MetaphasePlate

Sisterchromatids

Kinetochores

Overlappingnonkinetochoremicrotubules

Kinetochores microtubules

0.5 µm

Microtubules

Chromosomes

Figure 12.7

Centrosome

1 µm

  • Some spindle microtubules
    • Berikatan dengan kinetochores chromosomes
two kinds of microtubules
Two kinds of microtubules
  • Kinetochore microtubules : berikatan dengan kinetochores chromosomes dan menggerakkan kromosom ke daerah metafase
  • Nonkinetochores: overlap satu sama lain tetapi tidak berikatan dengan chromosome

1 µm

slide28

Kinetochore

Spindlepole

Figure 12.8

  • Pada anafase, sister chromatid berpisah
    • Dan bergerak sepanjang kinetochore microtubules menuju arah berlawanan ujung sel
slide30

The microtubules shorten by depolymerizing at their kinetochore ends

  • Nonkinetechore microtubules from opposite poles
    • Overlap and push against each other, elongating the cell
  • In telophase
    • Genetically identical daughter nuclei form at opposite ends of the cell
cytokinesis
CYTOKINESIS
  • Division of the cytoplasm
  • Mitosis is the splitting of the nucleus.

Cytokinesis is the splitting of cytoplasm

  • It usually begins during ANAPHASE
slide33

Cleavage furrow

100 µm

Contractile ring of microfilaments

Daughter cells

(a) Cleavage of an animal cell (SEM)

  • Pada sel hewan
    • Cytokinesis terjadi oleh proses yang disebut cleavage, membentuk sebuah a cleavage furrow
slide34

Vesiclesforming cell plate

Wall of patent cell

1 µm

Cell plate

New cell wall

Daughter cells

Figure 12.9 B

(b) Cell plate formation in a plant cell (SEM)

  • Pada sel tumbuhan, selama cytokinesis
    • Terbentuk plat sel (cell plate)
slide35

2

3

5

1

4

Chromatinecondensing

Nucleus

Chromosome

Nucleolus

Metaphase. The spindle is complete,and the chromosomes,attached to microtubulesat their kinetochores, are all at the metaphase plate.

Prophase. The chromatinis condensing. The nucleolus is beginning to disappear.Although not yet visible in the micrograph, the mitotic spindle is staring to from.

Prometaphase.We now see discretechromosomes; each consists of two identical sister chromatids. Laterin prometaphase, the nuclear envelop will fragment.

Telophase. Daughternuclei are forming. Meanwhile, cytokinesishas started: The cellplate, which will divided the cytoplasm in two, is growing toward the perimeterof the parent cell.

Anaphase. Thechromatids of each chromosome have separated, and the daughter chromosomesare moving to the ends of cell as their kinetochoremicrotubles shorten.

Figure 12.10

  • Mitosis in a plant cell
slide36

Purpose of Interphase – to duplicate cell contents; 90% of the cell’s growth cycle

Purpose of Mitosis – to divide the genetic material into exact two halves

Purpose of Cytokinesis – to divide all other contents (except nucleus) into two cells

slide37

Prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) reproduce by a type of cell division called binary fission

In binary fission

– The bacterial chromosome replicates

– The two daughter chromosomes actively move apart

le 12 11 1

Cell wall

Origin of

replication

LE 12-11_1

Plasma

membrane

E. coli cell

Bacterial

chromosome

Chromosome replication begins. Soon thereafter,

one copy of the origin moves rapidly toward the other end of the cell.

Two copies

of origin

le 12 11 2

Cell wall

Origin of

replication

Plasma

membrane

E. coli cell

Bacterial

chromosome

LE 12-11_2

Chromosome replication begins. Soon thereafter,

one copy of the origin moves rapidly toward the other end of the cell.

Two copies

of origin

Origin

Origin

Replication continues. One copy of the origin is now at each end of the cell.

le 12 11 3

Cell wall

Origin of

replication

Plasma

membrane

E. coli cell

Bacterial

chromosome

Chromosome replication begins.

Soon thereafter,

one copy of the origin moves rapidly toward the other end of the cell.

Two copies

of origin

LE 12-11_3

Origin

Origin

Replication continues. One copy of the origin is now at each end of the cell.

Replication finishes.

The plasma membrane grows inward, and

new cell wall is deposited.

Two daughter

cells result.