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Chapter 1: SUPERVISING IN UNCERTAIN TIMES Leonard: Supervision 11e. AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO:. Explain the demands and rewards of being a supervisor. Describe the contributions of four schools of management thought.

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chapter 1 supervising in uncertain times leonard supervision 11e

Chapter 1:SUPERVISING IN UNCERTAIN TIMESLeonard: Supervision 11e

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western.All rights reserved.

after studying this chapter you will be able to
AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO:
  • Explain the demands and rewards of being a supervisor.
  • Describe the contributions of four schools of management thought.
  • Identify and discuss the major demographic and societal trends that will affect supervisors.
  • Explain why supervisors must continually grow and develop as professionals.

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

what does it mean to be a supervisor in uncertain times
What Does It Mean to Be a Supervisor In Uncertain Times?
  • Successful Supervisors
    • Develop the ability to balance the requirements for high work performance with the diverse needs of the workforce.
  • The Challenges and Rewards of Supervision
    • Getting diverse people to work together
    • Increased responsibility that comes with climbing the management hierarchy
    • The unpredictable nature of the job
    • The sense of accomplishment from doing a job well
    • Managing organizational pressures and conflict

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

supervisory management
Supervisory Management
  • Supervisors
    • First-level managers in charge of entry-level and other departmental employees.
  • Working Supervisors
    • First-level individuals who perform supervisory functions but who may not legally or officially be part of management.
      • Foreman/forewoman, group/team leader, lead person, coach, and facilitator

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

schools of management thought
Schools of Management Thought
  • Scientific Management Approach (Taylor)
    • Focuses on determining the most efficient ways to increase output and productivity.
      • Analyze the tasks using the principles of science to find the one best way to perform the work.
      • Recruit the employee best suited to perform the job.
      • Instruct the worker in the one best way to perform the job.
      • Reward the accomplishment of the worker.
      • Cooperate with workers to ensure that the job matches plans and principles.
      • Ensure an equal division of work and responsibility between managers and workers.

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

schools of management thought cont d
Schools of Management Thought (cont’d)
  • Functional Approach
    • Asserts that all managers perform similar functions in doing their jobs—the universality of management.
      • A manager’s authority should equal that manager’s responsibility and that the direction and flow of authority through an organization should be unified.
    • Five functions of management (Fayol)
      • Planning: Setting down a course of action.
      • Organizing: Designing a structure, with tasks and authority clearly defined.
      • Commanding: Directing subordinates’ actions.
      • Coordinating: Pulling organizational elements toward common objectives.
      • Controlling: Ensuring that plans are carried out.

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

schools of management thought cont d7
Schools of Management Thought (cont’d)
  • Human Relations/Behavioral School
    • Focuses on the behavior of people in the work environment in the belief that:
      • if managers used the principles of scientific management, worker efficiency would increase and productivity increases would follow
      • if managers strove to improve working conditions, productivity would increase.
  • Hawthorne Studies
    • Hawthorne Effect
      • The fact that special interest shown in people may cause those people to behave differently.

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

schools of management thought cont d8
Schools of Management Thought (cont’d)
  • Quantitative/Systems Approaches
    • Use mathematical modeling as a foundation in attempting to quantitatively describe the interrelationships of variables through data, data can be manipulated and outcomes predicted.
    • Develop mathematical models as series or collections of interrelated variables or parts that can be analyzed and used in decision making.
    • Are frequently found in large organizations where sales, costs, and production data are analyzed using computer technology.

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

factors and trends affecting the role of the supervisor
Factors And Trends Affecting The Role Of The Supervisor
  • Diversity
    • The cultural, ethnic, gender, age, educational level, racial, and lifestyle differences of employees.
  • Population and Workforce Growth
    • Continued growth in both.
    • Better educated but many employees lack basic skills
  • Changing Age Patterns
    • The workforce will continue to grow older.
      • Generation Xers (1964–1981)
      • Boomers (1946–1963)
      • Matures (before 1945)

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

slide10
FIGURE 1.5Effective supervisors must be adaptable and be able to maintain their perspective in the face of rapidly changing conditions.

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

figure 1 6 trends affecting the workplace and the hr profession
FIGURE 1.6Trends affecting the workplace and the HR profession.
  • Continuing high cost of health care in the United States.
  • Large numbers of baby boomers retiring at around the same time.
  • Threat of increased health care/medical costs on economic competitiveness of the United States.
  • Aging population.
  • Growing need to develop retention strategies for current and future workforce.
  • Federal health care legislation.
  • Preparing organizations for an older workforce and the next wave of retirement.
  • Threat of recession in the United States globally.
  • Labor shortage at all skill levels.
  • Demographic shifts leading to a shortage of high-skilled workers.

Source: “Trends that HR professionals believe will have the biggest impact on the workplace and the HR profession.” SHRM 2008-2009 Workplace Forecast: A Strategic Outlook. This report is available to SHRM members free of charge. Others can log on to http://www.shrm.org/shrmstore to order a copy of the complete report.

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

figure 1 7 workforce projections 2006 2016
FIGURE 1.7Workforce projections 2006–2016
  • Employment: Total employment is expected to increase by 10 percent down substantially from earlier periods.
  • The service-producing sector will generate almost all of the employment gain during this time period.
  • Professional, business services, health care, and social assistance are also expected to grow substantially.
  • Those employed in management, scientific, and technical consulting services; employment services; and general medical and surgical hospitals have projected growth.
  • There will be a substantial decline in the manufacturing sector, including printing and motor vehicle parts manufacturing.
  • The number of workers over 55 is projected to grow more than five times the projected overall labor force growth rate.
  • Blacks will constitute 12.3 percent of the labor force.
  • Asians are expected to be the fastest growing group.
  • The labor force participation rates for women in nearly all age groups are projected to increase.

Source: FirstGov, at http://www.firstgov.gov, provides a one-stop access point for all U.S. government resources. Central to this site is a search engine into which you can enter keywords or phrases to help find the specific employment information you want. Much of the material contained in this figure was adapted from “BLS Releases 2006–2016 Employment Projections,” December 3, 2007. http://www.bls.gov/news.release/ecopro.nr0.htm.

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

factors and trends affecting the role of the supervisor cont d
Factors And Trends AffectingThe Role Of The Supervisor (cont’d)
  • Women in the Workforce and Related Issues
    • The increase in both the number and percentage of women in the U.S. workforce.
    • Women’s roles as both employees and mothers.
    • Conflicts between job and family obligations.
    • Sexual harassment in the work environment.

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

factors and trends affecting the role of the supervisor cont d14
Factors And Trends AffectingThe Role Of The Supervisor (cont’d)
  • When and How Work Will Be Done
    • Flextime
      • Policy that allows employees to choose their work hours within stated limits.
    • Job sharing
      • Policy that allows two or more employees to perform a job normally done by one full-time employee.
    • Telecommuting
      • Receiving work from and sending work to the office from home via a computer and modem.

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

factors and trends affecting the role of the supervisor cont d15
Factors And Trends AffectingThe Role Of The Supervisor (cont’d)
  • Racial Minorities in the Workforce
    • More non-English speaking employees
  • Opportunities for Women and Minorities
    • Glass ceiling
      • Invisible barrier that limits the advancement of women and minorities.
    • Glass walls
      • Invisible barriers that compartmentalize women and minorities into certain occupational classes.

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

factors and trends affecting the role of the supervisor cont d16
Factors And Trends AffectingThe Role Of The Supervisor (cont’d)
  • Educational Preparation
    • Too many college-trained employees
      • Underemployment: Situations in which people are in jobs that do not use their SKAs.
      • SKAs: A person’s skills, knowledge, and abilities.
    • Too many undereducated employees
    • Competitive advantage
      • The ability to outperform competitors by increasing efficiency, quality, creativity, and responsiveness to customers and effectively using employee talents.

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

factors and trends affecting the role of the supervisor cont d17
Factors And Trends AffectingThe Role Of The Supervisor (cont’d)
  • Occupational and Industry Trends
    • Steady growth in business-related services
      • Computer services, retail trade, healthcare, transportation, and banking and financial services.
    • Continued downsizing and growth in outsourcing
    • Declines in large-scale industrial manufacturing businesses with growth in small and midsize firms

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

factors and trends affecting the role of the supervisor cont d18
Factors And Trends AffectingThe Role Of The Supervisor (cont’d)
  • Changing Technology and Business Conditions
    • Increased demand for and use of computer skills as part of day-to-day responsibilities.
    • Ever-increasing amounts of information to be properly managed.
    • Uncertainty about when and how technological change will impact a supervisor’s position.

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

factors and trends affecting the role of the supervisor cont d19
Factors And Trends AffectingThe Role Of The Supervisor (cont’d)
  • Global Challenges
    • Recognizing that management practices differ culturally and structurally in foreign firms compared to U.S.-owned and -operated firms.
      • Transplanted U.S. supervisors will need to learn about cultural differences and to find ways to adapt to nontraditional management styles.
    • Outsourcing of high-end manufacturing and information technology jobs to low-cost countries is expected to continue.

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

factors and trends affecting the role of the supervisor cont d20
Factors And Trends AffectingThe Role Of The Supervisor (cont’d)
  • Employment Conditions and Work Scheduling
    • Working with a contingent workforce
      • Part-time, temporary, or contract employees who work schedules dependent primarily on employer needs
    • Motivating temporary employees
      • Lack of commitment among transient employees
    • Work scheduling problems
      • Employee demands for greater flexibility to attend to family needs are likely to accelerate during the foreseeable future
    • Executive compensation

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

factors and trends affecting the role of the supervisor cont d21
Factors And Trends AffectingThe Role Of The Supervisor (cont’d)
  • Employment Conditions and Work Scheduling
    • Executive compensation: Two-tier workforce
      • Paying new employees at a lower rate than more senior employees. Also used to refer to disparities associated with high executive compensation.
    • Corporate Culture and Ethical Conduct
      • Corporate culture: Set of shared purposes, values, and beliefs that employees hold about their organization.
      • Ethical behavior and fair dealing are at the forefront of good management practices, beginning at the supervisory level.

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

factors and trends affecting the role of the supervisor cont d22
Factors And Trends AffectingThe Role Of The Supervisor (cont’d)
  • Governmental and Societal Issues
    • Long-term environmental concerns
    • Energy availability and costs
    • The costs of compliance with laws and regulations
    • Pressures exerted by special-interest groups

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

figure 1 10 overview of federal employment legislation affecting supervisors
FIGURE 1.10Overview of federal employment legislation affecting supervisors.
  • Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) (1992)
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (1990)
  • Worker Adjustment and Retraining Act (WARN) (1988)
  • Pregnancy Discrimination Act (1978)
  • Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) (1970)
  • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, as amended (1964)
  • Labor Management Relations Act (Taft-Hartley) (1947)
  • Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) (1938)
  • National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) (1935)

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

factors and trends affecting the role of the supervisor cont d24
Factors And Trends AffectingThe Role Of The Supervisor (cont’d)
  • Workplace Incivility and People that Make Life Difficult
    • Rude behavior in the workplace is increasing, threatening the effectiveness of organizations through its effect on individuals and the lowering of group morale.
    • Understanding how to deal with incivility and difficult people is a critical managerial skill.

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

factors and trends affecting the role of the supervisor cont d25
Factors And Trends AffectingThe Role Of The Supervisor (cont’d)
  • Empowerment and Employee Participation in Decision Making
    • Empowerment
      • Giving employees the authority and responsibility to accomplish their individual and the organization’s objectives.
    • Participative management
      • Allowing employees to influence and share in organizational decision making.

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

supervision a professional perspective
Supervision: A Professional Perspective
  • Supervisors manage their firms’ most important resources—human resources.
  • Supervisors who want to be more effective:
    • Can develop the habits of highly effective people
    • Recognize the need for continuous self-development and renewing the four dimensions of their nature—spiritual, mental, social / emotional, and physical

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.

key terms
Competitive advantage

Contingent workforce

Corporate culture

CSR

Diversity

Engaged Employee

Empowerment

Flextime

Functional approach

Glass ceiling

Glass walls

Going Green

Hawthorne effect

SKAs

Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM)

Supervisors

Telecommuting

Underemployment

Working supervisors

Human relations movement/ behavioral science approach

Job sharing

Participative management

Quantitative/systems approaches

Scientific management approach

KEY TERMS

© 2010 Cengage/South-Western. All rights reserved.